Bobby Tiefenauer

This article was written by David E. Skelton.

In the 1951 St. Louis spring training camp, considerable focus turned to Bobby Tiefenauer as the answer to Philadelphia Phillies reliever Jim Konstanty, a high bar for the 22-year-old rookie to reach. Konstanty was the reigning National League Most Valuable Player, It was hoped that Tiefenauer’s knuckleball could match Konstanty’s success with off-speed sliders and change-ups. Cardinals’ minor league manager Bob Comiskey, a former catcher, claimed Tiefenauer had “the best knuckler I’ve ever seen.”1 Over the three preceding minor league campaigns, the right-handed hurler had garnered an impressive 36 wins. The Cardinals were confident Tiefenauer could make the jump to the big leagues from Class B ball.

But MVP awards were not in Tiefenauer’s future. Promoted to Class AAA in 1951, Tiefenauer made his major league debut the following season but would not achieve official rookie status for another nine years. Phenomenal minor league fortune never translated to consistent success for Tiefenauer at the big league level. The relaxed, “Lincolnesque”2 hurler – 6’2, 185 pounds – appeared to take the mixed success in stride. “[A]sked what happens when his knuckleball does not flutter, [Tiefenaur] replied, ‘I usually back up third and take a shower.’”3

Bobby Gene Tiefenauer was born on October 10, 1929, in the small community of Desloge, Missouri, 60 miles southwest of St. Louis. The paternal grandson of a Swiss immigrant who had settled in the Show-Me State in the mid-19th century, Bobby – who inexplicably went by “Pete” – was the second child (and first son) born to Thomas Elza Tiefenauer and May Viola Rencehausen. Bobby’s high school was too small to field a baseball team – St. Francois County had a population of less than 36,000 in 1940 – so the youngster’s exposure to diamond play was pickup softball and baseball. It was while playing shortstop that Bobby initially learned a knuckle throw with a softball. Never blessed with a blazing fastball, Bobby found that his new delivery allowed him to move competently to the mound against his neighborhood friends. His sandlot success convinced Bobby to travel to St. Louis in 1947 for an open tryout at a major league camp.

The glimpsed potential was enough for the Cardinals to sign Tiefenauer but not enough to spare him from a 1948 spring release before his first professional game. Re-signed in August, Tiefenauer reported to the Class D Tallassee (Alabama) Indians where he pitched effectively through the following season. He was the Indians’ only player to advance to the major leagues, but more immediately, Tiefenauer’s focus in 1950 was success with the Winston-Salem Cardinals. Used as a starter and in relief, Tiefenauer placed among the Carolina League (Class B) leaders in wins (16) and ERA (2.51) while leading the Cardinals to a first-place finish.

Following his failed attempt to catch on with St. Louis in the spring of 1951, Tiefenauer reported to the Rochester Red Wings in the International League. The hard-luck hurler posted a deceptive 9-9 record while placing among the league leaders with a 2.66 ERA. Used primarily as a starter (the only known season in which he received more starts than relief appearances), on July 27 Tiefenauer came within two outs of a no-hitter in leading the Red Wings to a 7-2 win over the Ottawa Giants. Success followed him into 1952 and in July St. Louis plucked Tiefenauer from the Rochester club. The Cardinals’ middling pitching corps caused the team to plow through a major-league high 20 hurlers4 in 1952 (a dubious mark matched only by the Pittsburgh Pirates). They turned to Tiefenauer in hopes of stabilizing the mound turmoil.

On July 14, 1952, Tiefenauer made his major league debut at home versus the Brooklyn Dodgers. Entering the 7th inning trailing 5-0, Tiefenauer struck out the first batter he faced. He did not exit unscathed – Tiefenauer was touched for one run in two innings – but the outing earned five additional appearances for the knuckler. A futile effort against the Philadelphia Phillies on August 3 ensured Tiefenauer’s return to the minors. Optioned briefly to the Columbus, Ohio affiliate, he was reassigned to Rochester where he helped hoist the Red Wings to the Junior World Series.

In 1953 Tiefenauer was one of 17 roster pitchers reporting to the Cardinals spring camp. A notable exhibition performance versus the reigning World Champion New York Yankees on March 8 did not prevent Tiefenauer’s return to Rochester. Except for two starting assignments, Tiefenauer was used by the Red Wings exclusively from the pen. On May 6 he won by holding Ottawa to one run in six innings of relief. Eighteen days later Tiefenauer secured another victory by shutting out the Toronto Maple Leafs over six-and-two-thirds innings, surrendering three hits. Tiefenauer’s season-long 9-3, 2.31 posting garnered consideration as the International League Pitcher of the Year. With reference to the efforts of Tiefenauer and fellow-reliever Jack Crimian, it was noted how the Red Wings raced to the league flag with “power and relief pitching [being] the key to the team’s success.”5 The only downside to Tiefenauer’s season was time missed in July nursing a sore arm, an infected tooth, and calcium deposits in his shoulder.

With the injuries in mind, the Cardinals advised Tiefenauer to take a cautious approach when he reported to Deland, Florida the following spring. He was one of the hand-picked prospects selected for one week of advanced instruction before training camp opened. Seemingly assured a roster spot, on April 12, 1954 – the eve of the Cardinals season opener – a disappointed Tiefenauer was assigned to the Class AA Houston Buffaloes in the Texas League. In this offense-oriented circuit Tiefenauer’s ERA rose to 4.16 (league average: 4.11). Working exclusively from the pen, he garnered considerable praise from Buffs’ manager Dixie Walker6 while placing among the team leaders with 10 wins. Tiefenauer’s contributions were particularly felt during the post-season playoffs versus the Fort Worth Cats. He captured two wins in the seven-game series, including seven-and-one-third innings of relief in the 17-inning Game Three marathon on September 16. Based on past disappointments, Tiefenauer might have been forgiven for being a bit jaded during the offseason when Cardinals manager Eddie Stanky tabbed the righty as a strong roster candidate in 1955.

But the fates aligned in Tiefenauer’s favor the following spring. Nearly two years to the day he again handcuffed the Yankees in a three-inning exhibition stint. The April 13 edition of The Sporting News cited Tiefenauer among the strong crop of promising rookies emerging on the major-league scene in 1955. For the first time in his career the 25-year-old earned a roster spot with a team starting north from spring training (five years passed before Tiefenauer would duplicate this privilege). From April 18 through April 23 the Cardinals’ bullpen did not surrender an earned run in over 19 innings. Tiefenauer contributed six of those frames. On May 6 the knuckleballer owned a 0.64 ERA over his first 14 innings. But beginning May 21 the Cardinals stumbled to an 11-21 mark in route to their first seventh-place finish in 36 years. Tiefenauer’s fortunes suffered similarly. On June 22 he surrendered a game-tying homer to Phillies catcher Stan Lopata and absorbed his fourth loss of the season. The outing hoisted Tiefenauer’s June ERA to 6.23 in six appearances. The next day he was optioned to the Cardinals’ Omaha affiliate in the American Association. Within weeks of Tiefenauer’s July 31 no-hit bid versus the Charleston Senators, the Detroit Tigers nabbed the Missouri-native to bolster their bullpen for the following season.

Though Detroit’s 1956 fireman role would fall to others, the spring competition was initially a contest between Tiefenauer and two additional newcomers. A 2.57 exhibition ERA had seemingly secured the closer role for Tiefenauer but his difficult-to-catch flutter pitch – he threw a knuckleball harder than most – contributed to his own demise. Teammates would not warm up Tiefenauer on the sidelines without a facemask. “Manager Bucky Harris was worried lest one of his catchers might get hurt trying to handle the knuckler.”7 Unable to comprehend that these difficulties might challenge opposing batters similarly, the Tigers optioned Tiefenauer to Charleston.

On May 29, 1956, he demonstrated his durability by hurling 10 shutout frames against the Louisville Colonels before surrendering a 17th inning run in an agonizing 9-8 loss. Despite an ERA more than a run lower than the league average, Tiefenauer suffered many other hard-luck losses for the offensive-challenged Charleston Senators. The next year he was traded to Toronto at the urging of the Maple Leafs’ new manager – and Tiefenauer’s longtime champion – Dixie Walker. The ensuing success in the International League would result in Tiefenauer’s induction into the circuit’s Hall of Fame.

Tiefenauer and former Red Wings mate Jack Crimian led the 1957 Maple Leafs to an 88-win first place finish. Over the next offseason Tiefenauer added to his repertoire a hard slider that drew favorable comparisons with that of major league All-Star Clem Labine. In 1958 the knuckleball - slider combo contributed to Tiefenauer’s finest professional campaign. Over more than eight appearances Tiefenauer strung together 16 1/3 no-hit innings ending May 17. Surprisingly, a miniscule 0.26 ERA on May 19 included two losses for the oft-tested hurler (one loss came on a wild pitch, the travails of a knuckleballer). He did not lose another game after May 28. By July Tiefenauer was attracting attention from major league scouts, including an aggressive pursuit by the San Francisco Giants. A particularly impressive outing came on July 24 when Tiefenauer secured his eighth straight win after rescuing starter Ernie Broglio from a 5th inning, bases-loaded jam.

Tiefenauer won 15 of his final 16 decisions to finish the season at 17-5, with a league-best 1.89 ERA, the league’s lowest in 12 years and the first ERA title for a reliever. Tiefenauer posted the circuit’s season-highest winning percentage (.773) and most appearances (64) for a pitcher. He was a close runner-up to Montreal Royals lefty Tom Lasorda for Most Valuable Pitcher in the league. On October 15, 1958, Tiefenauer was acquired by Cleveland for Dave Pope, Larry Raines and undisclosed cash considerations. Speculation was that Frank Lane, the Indians general manager, acquired Tiefenauer to replace either Don Mossi or Ray Narleski. True to form, “Trader Frank” swapped both veterans one month later. Lane’s plans worked only as far as the Indians’ first intra-squad game the following spring when Tiefenauer injured his arm.

A later diagnosis determined that Tiefenauer had a circulatory problem. Assigned to the disabled list, he returned to his Desloge, Missouri home and missed the entire 1959 campaign. Bob Bauman, the Cardinals’ trainer, started working with Tiefenauer as a favor to his friend Frank Lane. In September Bauman arranged for Tiefenauer to throw batting practice to the Cardinals hitters. When St. Louis was on the road and during the offseason, Tiefenauer rigged a homemade batting cage behind his garage, using an old mattress as a backstop, and continued his gradual journey back to the majors.

After surrendering just two runs in his first 13 exhibition innings in spring training, Tiefenauer had seemingly locked down the fireman role for the 1960 Indians. He made two successful appearances in Cleveland’s first three regular season games before arm problems appear to have resurfaced. Used sparingly – though successfully – through May 31 Tiefenauer possessed a 2.00 ERA in nine innings. Inexplicably, he was sold to the Cardinals two days later. In April 1961 The Sporting News reported that the Cardinals acquired Tiefenauer because they “wanted a veteran pitcher for their farm club at Rochester,”8 but this explanation hardly explains Cleveland’s motive for parting with the knuckler. Despite the spring acquisition of reliever Johnny Klippstein, the Indians were lacking an effective relief corps. A 2.00 ERA in limited use – well under the team’s 3.95 mark – would ostensibly make Tiefenauer a prized possession, rather than a minor league commodity. Throughout Frank Lane’s long tenure as general manager for many teams, he proved incapable of passing up any trade. The sale of Tiefenauer to St. Louis defies understanding.

Evidencing no arm problems in Rochester, Tiefenauer again demonstrated his mastery in the International League by posting a record of 11-4, 3.14 in 86 innings. In August, as St. Louis closed to within three-and-one-half games of first place, the team briefly considered promoting Tiefenauer to bolster the bullpen, though nothing came of this. For the second time in three years Tiefenauer was voted runner-up for the league’s Most Valuable Pitcher award, this time to teammate Al Cicotte. By the following spring Cardinals manager Solly Hemus was ecstatic with the options available to him from Rochester: “Al Cicotte and Bobby Tiefenauer definitely are in the picture,” Hemus said. “They have looked good in exhibition games … Tiefenauer could give us right-handed help in the bullpen.”9 Among this trio of manager and pitchers only Cicotte would survive the 1961 season with St. Louis.

Tiefenauer ended the exhibition season with his usual dominance over the Yankees, a 10-pitch, three out performance on April 8. Six days later that dominance did not extend into the regular season when he surrendered two runs to Cincinnati while credited with securing one out. Tiefenauer made two additional appearances before he was assigned to the San Juan (later Charleston) Marlins in the International League.10 His continued IL command (10-2, 2.34 ERA) would attract attention from the Houston Colt .45s, but not before Tiefenauer achieved two career milestones. On June 4, 1961, Tiefenauer – a notoriously poor hitter – struck a home run against the Columbus Jets. The drive represented the only four-bagger in Tiefenauer’s professional career. Two months later he received his first starting assignment in five years and shut out the first-place Jets with a nifty four-hit gem. It was his last professional start.

On October 15, 1961, the expansion Colt .45s purchased Tiefenauer from St. Louis. Projected to compete with veteran righty Turk Farrell for the fireman role the following spring, Tiefenauer was “highly regarded by Houston’s brass … He looks like a real prospect, despite having knocked around for a dozen years.”11 Beginning April 17, 1962 Tiefenauer strung together six consecutive appearances – 8 2/3 innings – of two-hit, shutout pitching. On May 7 he collected his first major league win in seven years with three innings of one-hit relief against the Los Angeles Dodgers. His second win came on June 3 in unique fashion while assisting Houston in a franchise-first.

In the first game of a doubleheader versus the Pittsburgh Pirates, catcher Hal Smith switched to an oversized mitt when Tiefenauer entered in the fifth inning. The mitt was designed by general manager Paul Richards to corral the fluttering knuckler but had little use otherwise. In the 7th inning future Hall of Famer Roberto Clemente attempted to score the go-ahead run by tagging from third base on a fly ball to right field. In a play previously rehearsed, Tiefenauer tossed his glove to Smith while the throw from Roman Mejias was still in the air. The catcher successfully tagged Clemente with the pitcher’s glove, preserving a 6-6 tie. Houston went on to score four runs in the next frame to provide Tiefenauer the win. They won the nightcap to register the first twin-bill sweep in Houston’s history.

Tiefenauer finished his first full major league campaign with a single-season career high 85 innings and a deceiving record of 2-4, 4.34. His ERA mushroomed over his last three appearances when he surrendered 14 runs in his final 10 2/3 innings. Until that time he had carried a 3.27 mark (league average: 3.94) into the 156th game of the season. Despite the late slip, the 32-year-old hurler appeared to have found a home with the expansion club. He soon found out differently.

Differing accounts describe Tiefenauer’s departure from Houston:

  • On February 13, 1963, he was traded to the Cardinals for southpaw Don Ferrarese to bolster the Colt .45s left-handed mound presence
  • In order to protect a handful of promising youngsters from the major league draft, Tiefenauer was left exposed when he was assigned to Houston’s Class AAA affiliate in Oklahoma City. St. Louis claimed him for the $25,000 waiver price

In either instance Tiefenauer reported to Florida in spring 1963 as a Cardinals non-roster invitee.

As was their wont, St. Louis assigned Tiefenauer to the minors – this time with a catch. Advised to forgo further major league ambitions, Tiefenauer was asked to serve as player-coach (with a strong emphasis on the latter) for the AAA Atlanta Crackers. Receiving very little playing time, Tiefenauer apparently requested a change of scenery. In late spring he was traded to Toronto12 where he promptly returned to his former success with a record of 11-4, 2.14 in 105 innings that earned him runner-up honors for the best relief pitcher in the International League. By then Tiefenauer was pitching in Milwaukee.

The difficulties of catching his hard-thrown knuckler were glimpsed shortly after Tiefenauer joined the Braves. Milwaukee’s recently acquired Gene Oliver had caught him often when he and Tiefenauer were in the Cardinals system. The Braves converted Oliver to first base through most of the 1963 season, for which he was grateful when Tiefenauer arrived: “I didn’t want to catch that crazy knuckleball,”13 Oliver exclaimed. But the “crazy” pitch served the Braves well after Tiefenauer’s August 11 arrival. The bullpen had been a problem for the team through most of the season, with converted starter Bob Shaw being one of the few bright spots. Tiefenauer made 12 appearances – including a 10-inning relief stint against the New York Mets on September 1 – with a 1.21 ERA in 29 2/3 innings. In the offseason Braves manager Bobby Bragan, in anticipation of the full-time presence of Shaw and Tiefenauer in 1964, confidently predicted “the Braves no longer have a bull-pen problem.”14 Perhaps Bragan had not been consulted when, within days of these comments, Shaw was traded to the San Francisco Giants in a six-player swap. By default, the Braves fireman role had fallen into the lap of the 34-year-old knuckler.

On March 21, 1964, Tiefenauer’s prior Grapefruit League dominance over the Yankees was replaced by an outstanding five-inning shutout stint versus the Minnesota Twins. The outing served as a springboard for success as Tiefenauer closed April with a 0.82 ERA in 11 innings. But Tiefenauer’s season took on a see-saw aspect as a middling May was followed by a profitable June and a ruinous July-August. Over a five-week period beginning July 23 he posted a 7.07 ERA in 10 appearances (14 innings). Bragan turned increasingly to a closer-by-committee as the team fell hopelessly out of contention. Then, just as dramatically, both team and hurler turned things around. The Braves finished the season with a 23-10 run while Tiefenauer appeared to regain his manager’s confidence by surrendering just two earned runs in his final 10 2/3 innings. That same confidence did not extend to the general manager’s office; the Braves acquired relievers Billy O’Dell and Dan Osinski via trade in the offseason.

Used sparingly by the Braves at the start of the 1965 season, Tiefenauer soon became a much-travelled commodity. In June he was assigned to Atlanta where Crackers manager Bill Adair welcomed him warmly: “Tiefenauer should help us straighten out our bullpen problems.”15 The welcome proved short-lived when within days the Braves sold Tiefenauer to the New York Yankees.16 On June 26 he earned his only career American League win against the Los Angeles Angels in relief of Jim Bouton, who was removed in the fourth inning with a muscle pull in his left leg. But much like Detroit nine years earlier, the Yankees lacked a catcher capable of handling Tiefenauer. .

In August the Cleveland Indians were slipping from contention, with particular concerns emanating from the bullpen. Tebbetts had unsuccessfully petitioned general manager Gabe Paul for a knuckler to mirror the success of Hoyt Wilhelm and Jack Fisher in the Chicago White Sox bullpen. The general manager blew up when he discovered Tebbetts secretly coaxing pitching coach Early Wynn to come out of retirement resurrected as a knuckler. When the feathers settled, Paul reluctantly bought Tiefenauer on August 11. . Two days later Tebbetts’s instincts proved correct when Tiefenauer’s Cleveland debut preserved a 3-1 win over the Twins with three innings of one-hit relief. A difficult second outing was followed by eight innings of three-hit pitching over five appearances. But this success was not sustained. From August 27 to September 18 Tiefenauer absorbed five consecutive losses over eight appearances, posting a 7.36 ERA in 11 innings. At the rumored direction of the general manager, Tiefenauer did not appear in the team’s remaining 15 games. He was optioned to the Indians AAA affiliate in Portland shortly after the season.

Over the next four years Tiefenauer spent the majority of his time in the Pacific Coast League. In 1967 Tiefenauer’s record of 6-1, 1.87 in 64 appearances with the Portland Beavers earned co-Most Valuable Player accolades from the team’s sportscasters and writers. Interest from the Chicago Cubs was thwarted when the Indians called Tiefenauer up in September. He collected his last American League decision in historic fashion in Chicago on September 13, coming in in the fifteenth inning of a scoreless game and giving up the winning run in the seventeenth, the then-longest 1-0 game in the American League. The setback did not mar Tiefenauer’s splendid 0.79 ERA in 11 1/3 innings.

On March 30, 1968 the Cubs succeeded in acquiring Tiefenauer in a trade for 23-year-old lefty Rob Gardner. A strong showing in spring training afforded Tiefenauer a roster spot with the Cubs but little success followed. On April 16 he absorbed his last major league decision in a loss to Cincinnati. Tiefenauer needed to stay with the team through July 5 to qualify for a pension as a five-year player. He was optioned to Tacoma in May. His 1.46 ERA in 80 innings in the Pacific Coast League garnered second-team All-Star honors in the circuit, earning him another September call-up. On September 21 he induced Pittsburgh pitcher Dock Ellis to groundout in the 4th inning. Ellis was the last major league hitter he faced. In 1969 the 39-year-old hurler returned to Tacoma as the oldest player in the league. As a player-coach, Tiefenauer’s contributions led to an 86-win campaign that paced the league’s Northern Division. He retired after the season.

Faced with the possibility of leaving the game four years earlier, Tiefenauer remarked, “If I go home tomorrow, I’ll still feel very fortunate. Baseball has been [good] to me ... I know I can tear up the minors, but I don’t know if that’s what I want.”17 Throughout his career Tiefenauer held down a variety of offseason jobs from warehouse employee to truck driver to handling jack hammers in construction. He served many years as an employee of Pittsburgh Plate Glass. In late 1969 he was resigned to similar labor when the Phillies beckoned. For the next dozen years Tiefenauer served in varied capacities as a minor league pitching instructor, Phillies bullpen coach and, beginning in 1974, an assistant to manager Danny Ozark. In August 1979 Tiefenauer took the mound for the Phillies in an exhibition game against their AAA affiliate in Oklahoma City.

The strong family man returned to Desloge, Missouri following his long stint with Philadelphia. Awaiting him was Rose Marie Henson, his childhood sweetheart and wife of over 30 years. Rose Marie was a native of Elvins (now Park Hills), Missouri and grew up less than three miles from her future husband. She met Tiefenauer while working the concession stand for one of his softball games. They married on September 5, 1950, in Winston-Salem while he was finishing his year with the Class B Cardinals. The union produced three sons and one daughter. In May 1957 the growing family was spared disaster when a tornado wiped out Tiefenauer’s Desloge home. Fortunately his wife and then-three children were visiting him in Toronto at the time. Every spring when school let out Rose Marie packed up the family car and the children enjoyed a three-month vacation wherever Tiefenauer was playing, excursions that provided lasting memories decades thereafter.

An accomplished basketball player since his youth, Tiefenauer could often be found on the hardwood courts before, during and after his baseball career. Many of these (and pickup football games alongside the nearby railroad tracks) were with his sons and neighborhood children. Tiefenauer was also a passionate outdoorsman. Baseball was never far from his purview. He assisted his son coaching Senior Babe Ruth baseball, offering help to aspiring hurlers.

In 1997 Tiefenauer was diagnosed with cancer of the larynx. He went into remission following radiation and surgery, but the procedures left him with a very raspy voice. In 1999 the cancer spread to his esophagus. A stoic individual his entire life on and off the field, Tiefenauer never complained. He succumbed to the disease on June 13, 2000. He was survived by his wife, four children and nine grandchildren.

For 21 years Tiefenauer’s hard-thrown knuckleball was a scourge of both professional batters and his own catchers. Notwithstanding the oxymoron of a knuckler with control, Tiefenauer was most effective when he was able to place the flutter pitch low and outside to the hitter. He finished his 10-year major league career with a record of 9-25, 3.84 in 316 innings. But it was in the minors that Tiefenauer excelled: 162 wins and a 2.66 ERA in 2,039 innings. His extraordinary International League success was rewarded on June 6, 2008 with induction into the circuit’s Hall of Fame alongside Hobart “Rabbit” Whitman and 1952 National League Most Valuable Player Hank Sauer.



The author wishes to thank the following: Rose Marie Tiefenauer and children for input related to “Pete’s” life off the field; and SABR member Pat Doyle for his insights regarding Tiefenauer’s 1960 assignment to Rochester when Pat was an employee of the Red Wings, Doyle was personally acquainted with Tiefenauer.



The Sporting News



1 “Cards Tab Tiefenauer New Konstanty,” The Sporting News, March 14, 1951, 4.

2 “Redbirds Swift, But Pace Depends on Their Hurlers,” The Sporting News, April 13, 1955, 17.

3 “Small Relief Checks Send Tribe on Tiefenauer Trail,” The Sporting News, August 28, 1965, 9.

4 From 1949-1954 the Cardinals used 47 pitchers.

5 “Nine .300 Sockers Wings’ Flag Story,” The Sporting News, September 23, 1953, 23.

6 Dixie’s brother Harry, the Rochester manager, was also a strong advocate of Tiefenauer’s.

7 “Leaf Tiefenauer’s Sinker Sinks ERA as Bull-Pen Blazer,” The Sporting News, June 11, 1958, 51.

8 “Flashy Redbirds Hang Fast Kayo on Getaway Hex,” The Sporting News, April 19, 1961, 15.

9 “Solly’s Size-Up – Redbirds Geared for Pennant Push,” The Sporting News, April 12, 1961, 15.

10 Rochester had switched to a Baltimore Orioles affiliate.

11 “Angels’ New Trademarks – Power, Speed, Top Hurling,” The Sporting News, March 21, 1962, 14.

12 June 19, 1963 is the earliest date Tiefenauer was found pitching for the Maple Leafs.

13 “Oliver, Faced With Catching Knuckleball, Breaks Up Tilt,” The Sporting News, August 31, 1963, 27.

14 “Prof Bragan Taps Lemaster as No. 1 Braves’ Hill Pupil,” The Sporting News, December 7, 1963, 28.

15 “International Items,” The Sporting News, June 19, 1965, 44.

16 Some sources reflect this as a trade for young righty Tom Dukes.

17 “So You Think a Major Leaguer Has It Made? This One Doesn’t,” The Sporting News, October 2, 1965, 34.

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