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Fate and the Federal League: Were the Federals Incompetent, Outmaneuvered, or Just Unlucky?

By Bob Ruzzo

This article was published in the Fall 2013 Baseball Research Journal.

“War is the Province of Chance.”— Count Carl von Clausewitz THE FOG OF WAR Even a bloodless, but nonetheless bitter “war,” such as the two-year (1914–15) battle between the outlaw Federal League and Organized Baseball proves Clausewitz’s point.1 . . .

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