'Just Bounce Right Back Up and Dust Yourself Off': Participation Motivations, Resilience, and Perceived Organizational Support Among Amateur Baseball Umpires

By Lori A. Livingston, Ph.D. and Susan L. Forbes, Ph.D.

This article was published in the Fall 2017 Baseball Research Journal.

It is commonly thought that the stressful nature of sporting officials’ roles and threats of verbal and physical abuse are the primary reason why candidates drop out of the officiating ranks. This article attempts to identify what motivates individuals to enter into and remain active in amateur baseball umpiring, and investigate their resilience and how their perceptions of the support they receive from their sporting organizations affected their resilience. Sports officials have long possessed a less-than-desirable reputation in the eyes of the . . .

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