This article was written by Aidan Jackson-Evans
Fred Cook pitched in the major leagues but not under his real name, and fought in World War I but not for the country of his birth. Such was the life of this enigma, who is known to the major league record books as “Fred Winchell” and was ultimately buried in an unmarked grave. The unusual circumstances of his baseball and military career have resulted in him going unrecognized as the first American major leaguer to enlist during the Great War.
Frederick Russell Cook1 was born in Arlington, Massachusetts, on January 23, 1882 to Annie Frances Frost and Charles Warren Cook, a milkman. His maternal grandfather was Francis Seth Frost, an artist and founder of the renowned Boston arts supplies firm Frost and Adams.2 Frost had traveled by ship to California in 1849 amid the Gold Rush, and returned to New England with both gold dust and sketches of his travels. Frost later produced landscapes of the Rocky Mountains, and as a founding member of the Boston Art Club he was at the heart of the White Mountain landscape school.3 Cook, along with his mother and three elder siblings, would move in with Frost after Cook’s parents divorced some time prior to 1900.
Cook started playing baseball in the spring of 1899 while a sophomore at Arlington High School. The slim (5-foot-9 and 150 pounds) teenager developed “a well-controlled speed ball” and “mastered a fine drop” while working out in the gymnasium under the tutelage of Ira W. Holt, the school’s principal and baseball coach.4 A right handed pitcher, Cook also played shortstop and left field.
After completing his studies at Arlington High, Cook entered Phillips Exeter Academy, an independent school in Exeter, New Hampshire, in the spring of 1902.5 He ran for the academy relay team, competed in the school bowling league and kept time in football games, in addition to pitching for the baseball team.6 He started the rivalry game between Exeter and Phillips Andover Academy three years running from 1902 to 1904. In the first of these games, on June 7, 1902, Cook bested Andover by a score of 5–3 in drizzling rain.
The following spring Cook struggled with a strained hip, sore back and sciatic rheumatism, but returned from injury in time to pitch 13 innings versus the visiting Princeton team. Exeter lost the game, 4–3, but Cook’s twelve strikeouts contributed to “probably the most exciting baseball game ever seen on the Exeter field.”7 A week later a record crowd for an Exeter-Andover game8 saw Cook take a 1–0 loss in what was dubbed the “greatest game of baseball ever played between the two schools.”9
Despite college restrictions on amateurs playing professional or semi-professional ball, Cook played summer ball in 1903 for the Maplewood House in New Hampshire’s White Mountains.10 Many players used assumed names to evade detection by the colleges,11 although Cook may have competed under his real name.
In his final meeting with Andover in June, 1904, Cook pitched with “flying colors” to help Exeter to a 2–1 victory. Andover put the tying run in scoring position in the ninth, but Cook retired the final batter to earn the win. Jubilant Exeter fans carried the team to the gymnasium on their shoulders.12
Cook’s victory came in defiance of the biblical proverb he had chosen to accompany his 1904 yearbook page: “The pitcher goes so often to the water that it comes home broken at last.”13 The yearbook also alluded to Cook’s wild side; it joked about “Fritz” whooping at pretty girls and being “harder to control… than one of his curves.”14
Despite previous interest in studying at Harvard, Yale, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cook commenced studies at Princeton University in the fall of 1904, entering the School of Sciences.15 He was elected captain of the freshman baseball team and impressed in inter-class games, striking out eleven sophomores in a game in which he also batted cleanup and scored the freshmen’s only run.16
Cook tried out unsuccessfully for the university hockey team17 but made the baseball team in the spring of 1905. While he often worked in the outfield in practice games, Cook’s pitching remained his calling card. In April the Trenton Times described his play as “erratic at times,” but added that “he is playing a good all around game, and is steadily improving.”18
Princeton University, presided over by Woodrow Wilson, did not admit black students during Cook’s time at the university.19 20 When hosting the Wesleyan baseball team on April 27, 1905, Princeton objected to the presence of the dark-skinned players Thomas Taylor and John Smith in the opposing line-up and “refused to play… unless any black players were removed.”21 Wesleyan’s captain replaced Taylor in the lineup but was successful in “persuading the Princetonians that John Smith, whose skin was of lighter color, was Armenian.”22 Cook’s involvement in the Princeton team’s objections is unknown, and he did not figure in the eventual game.23
The climax of Princeton’s season was the three-game set versus Yale in early June. Cook started in right field in all three games, having previously been on the bench with a “lame arm.”24 In the first game Cook collected three hits and was thrown out at the plate twice as Princeton demolished Yale, 18–2.25 The second game was played at Princeton in front of a record crowd of “between ten and eleven thousand” and was won by Yale.26 A reported 14,000 spectators then witnessed Yale’s victory in the deciding game at the Polo Grounds.27
Cook played in the inter-class games in the fall of 1905, but these were to be his last appearances for Princeton. The budding pitcher had “got in wrong with the college head over his studies,”28 and by the year’s end he had left the institution and “gone west.”29
To be precise, Cook had traveled to San Antonio, Texas, where he joined the Bronchos ballclub of the Class C South Texas League. Manager Bill Morrow described the new arrival as having “speed, control, headwork and curves to the limit and then some.”30
At some point in Cook’s early career, possibly between his exit from Princeton and his arrival in San Antonio in February 1906, he transitioned from being a curveball pitcher to one with excellent control and a change of pace.31 This transformation allegedly occurred after Cook had broken his arm while throwing an outdrop, and fear of repeating the injury had led him to stay away from throwing that pitch.32 His work in spring training was limited because he was “favoring his arm.”33
Cook’s debut year in professional baseball was a success, despite concerns during the season that he was being overworked.34 By June, the rookie was leading the league in strikeouts,35 aided by 18 Ks in a 16 inning, 0–0 tie versus the Houston Buffaloes.36 Cook also flourished on the other side of the ball, starting more than a dozen games in the outfield in 1906 and sometimes batting cleanup; his .279 batting average was the eighth highest in the league.37 Sporting Life suggested that Class A managers should “keep their eyes” on the 24-year-old.38
Despite his on-field success, it was reported in November that Cook had given thought to quitting the game.39 In February 1907 he indeed left the Bronchos to work for the office of the San Antonio Traction Company, the firm that ran the city’s streetcars. “I guess I’m out of baseball for keeps now,” he said. “It’s a good business, but there are better to my mind.”40
The reason for Cook’s abrupt departure from the sport was given no further explanation, but in 1909 it was revealed that Cook had fallen out with his family, who considered his baseball profession “a horror.”4 1 These tensions were almost certainly the motivating factor in his sudden retirement.
Nevertheless, Cook could not stay away from baseball for long. He played against the Bronchos for a team of independents in a practice game in early April, and the fan favorite was back in a San Antonio uniform for two games later in the month. In the first of these he played right field and scored the winning run in the ninth inning, diving into home headfirst.42 The next day he struck out twelve and allowed one run in an 11-inning win.43 Cook insisted that he was “not in the game for good” and merely helping out,44 but the San Antonio Daily Express was hopeful he would again be playing regularly for the Bronchos, who now competed in the Class C Texas League.
Cook retreated back into retirement though, and did not play in either May or June. But on July 15, the San Antonio Gazette reported that Cook had come out of retirement to sign with the Bronchos.45 The next day, the same newspaper offered an improbable retraction:
“Through an error it was stated yesterday that Fred Cook would play with the Bronchos. It was learned this morning that Mr. Cook will not play, but that Fred Clark is the name of the player who has been secured.”46
On July 19, the San Antonio Light said that pitcher “Fred Clarke” was to join the club that day.47 The Bronchos instead fielded a new recruit by the name of “Winchell”, who started at second base and was described as “the new infielder”.48 The following day Winchell started both games of a doubleheader at second base, before pitching on July 21 and playing that position exclusively for the rest of the season.
Clark, Clarke and Winchell were all the same person: Fred Cook. From his second Bronchos debut in July 1907 through the end of the 1909 season, Cook used the pseudonym “Fred Winchell” in an attempt to avoid the detection of his disapproving family.49 The local newspapers played their part in the deception, only occasionally slipping up. In one instance a newspaper referred to Fred as both “Winchell” and “Cook” in different sections of the same box score, while the national publication Sporting Life listed Cook and Winchell as separate players on the Bronchos roster two years running.
On the field “Winchell” remained a star. The right-hander had spent the offseason on a ranch close to San Antonio,50 claiming to be “in better shape than he has been for some time”, and started on the mound for the Bronchos on Opening Day in 1908.51 Two months later he pitched arguably the greatest game of his career, taking a no-hitter into the twelfth inning before allowing a two-out hit. With the game scoreless in the thirteenth inning, the opposing Waco lineup broke through for two runs, handing him the loss. The day still belonged to Winchell: one reporter remarked, “It was better to have pitched and lost than never to have pitched at all”.52
The Bronchos won the 1908 pennant by six games and Fritz—the nickname had followed him to San Antonio—bookended the Bronchos season with a win in the final game of the year. It was the only time he played on a championship team in professional baseball.
By 1909 it was widely expected that Cook—still going by Winchell—would soon move to a higher level of competition.53 The “smoke-raising twirler” played winter ball in Cananea, Mexico, before ranching near San Antonio ahead of spring training.54 He pitched against the Detroit Tigers in March; rumors that he was to join that club, whose manager Hughie Jennings had briefly coached Cook at Princeton, cropped up throughout 1909.55
A dominant start to the season included a stretch of three complete games where he allowed a combined four hits. His accomplishments were all the more remarkable considering he had been battling the flu.56 Later in the season he would suffer from “a little touch of malaria”57 , a sore shoulder, a severe cold,58 and boils on the underside of his pitching arm.59
Nevertheless, he battled through these ailments to lead the Texas League with 264 strikeouts,60 and his performances attracted the attention of “Deacon” Jim McGuire , manager of the American League’s Cleveland Naps. The pitcher known as Winchell and three other Bronchos were sold to the American League club in mid-August and reported to the Naps on September 12 after the Texas League season had ended.61
Upon his arrival The Cleveland Press revealed that the new pitcher “Winchell” was in fact Fred Cook, and outlined his background as a Princeton pitcher who had fallen out with his family and had attempted to conceal his identity in order to continue playing baseball. The Press mentioned that his father was deceased and “there was quite a fortune left”—although it is more likely this money was left by his grandfather, the artist F.S. Frost, who had died in 1902. “Winchell knows his relatives know he plays ball,” continued the article. “His friends say there is to be a reconciliation, but that it won’t take Winchell out of the game.”62
Cook, referred to as Winchell for the rest of 1909, joined the Naps during the club’s 24-game season-ending road trip. One of the stops on the trip was Boston, home turf for the Arlington-born pitcher, and it was reported that he pranked his teammates by sending them on a wild goose chase in search of a fictional “Bean Hill Monument”.63
The major league rookie pitched in four games for the Naps: a seven-inning loss in New York, a save in Philadelphia, and losses in Washington and St. Louis, which left him with an 0–3 record and a 6.28 ERA. Another bout with malaria may have limited both his playing time and effectiveness.64 It was the only major league experience of his career. At the conclusion of the season he returned to Texas and played in the inaugural San Antonio Winter Baseball League.65
The Naps released Cook to the Columbus Senators of the Class A American Association on February 1, 1910.66 He worked out with the Bronchos and the visiting Detroit Tigers in the spring before reporting to Columbus in April.67 At the end of the month, however, he was sent to Grand Rapids of the Class B Central League, as part of an agreement that would allow Columbus to take their pick of the Grand Rapids hurlers later in the season.68
Pitching under his real name for the first time in three years, Cook started and won on Opening Day for Grand Rapids.69 Cook’s 11-15 record with Grand Rapids was unspectacular, but his 136 strikeouts led the team and his rate of strikeouts per nine innings led the league.70 These performances in the Central League, where he acquired the nickname “Doc”, were impressive enough that the Senators took him back in mid-August.71 Cook, no longer a two-way player, pitched for the Senators through the end of the season72 and would play for the club for the next four seasons.
Injury prevented Cook from taking the mound at the outset of the 1911 season,73 but his campaign was more unexpectedly disrupted in the summer. After taking the loss in Toledo on Sunday July 16, Cook went into town with pitcher William “Lefty” James of the hometown Mud Hens. Trouble occurred when the pair’s “rowdy” behavior in a restaurant resulted in them being beaten up on the street by a group of local boys. The duo had allegedly insulted a waitress who “refused to let them throw biscuits across the table,” although James claimed the attack was unprovoked.74 Another report said that Cook was attacked for “ogling girls,”75 while another claimed the assailants were a “gang of Toledo newsboys.”76 Whatever the cause, Cook was left with “a severe cut on the face and on the head” and was afterwards “under the care of a physician at his hotel.”77 Cook was suspended and fined $100 by the Senators for his role in the affair.78
On July 24, just over a week after the fight, Cook rejoined his teammates on the road in Milwaukee, his suspension having been lifted.79 On August 1, Cook made the first of ten consecutive winning starts, a league record; manager Bill Friel said Cook had “made up for his breaking of rules by his fine work since,” and remitted the fine.80 81 Cook, who had by now rediscovered his curveball,82 finished the season 18–12, the best WL record on his team.83
Following the season Cook traveled to San Antonio where he reconnected with friends, and again spent the winter splitting his time between ranches and the town.84 Cook received a “substantial increase in salary” from the Senators85 ahead of the 1912 American Association season (now designated a Class AA league) and started Opening Day on the mound. Now 30 years old, he posted a 17–15 record.86
On January 4, 1913, Cook married Lauretta Estelle Baehr in Covington, Kentucky. He again started on Opening Day for Columbus, although come the end of the season he was no longer among the pitching leaders and slumped to a 13–18 record.87 The Senators ace in 1913 was Leonard “King” Cole , and Cook’s delivery was later said to ape Cole’s manner of winding himself into a knot before releasing the ball.88
As was his custom, Cook wintered in San Antonio ahead of the 1914 season.89 Prior to spring training he was approached by Mordecai Brown , manager of the St. Louis team of the nascent Federal League, to discuss contract terms. Cook considered jumping ship but ultimately remained with Columbus.90 For the third straight season he was their Opening Day starter, but, no longer the pitcher of his youth, he struggled to control his fastball91 and posted one of the highest ERAs in the league among regulars. His 18–11 record was more impressive, however, and John McGraw’s New York Giants drafted the pitcher at the season’s end.92
The Giants held their 1915 spring training in Marlin Springs, Texas. Cook’s chances of securing a spot on a big-league team were again hampered by injury. A sore arm held him back, and he also “cut his pitching hand rescuing furniture from a burning house” after a fire had broken out near the team hotel.93 Cook left spring training with the second team, who barnstormed their way back to New York under the management of second baseman Eddie Grant .94
McGraw’s surplus of pitchers resulted in Cook’s release to the Toronto Leafs of the Class AA International League.95 96 There he made just over half of his appearances as a reliever—the first time in his career he had not primarily been a starting pitcher. However, Cook had one last hurrah as a starter. On September 10, 1915, in the second game of a doubleheader at home against Harrisburg, he threw a seven-inning no-hitter.97
Cook made two appearances for the Leafs in May 1916, before being suspended as “he was not in shape to pitch.” One assessment of his time in Toronto was that “his arm failed him.”98 Cook’s decade-long professional career had come to an end.
His tenure with the Leafs had come amid Canada’s involvement in the Great War. One of his teammates on the 1915 Leafs, Canadian outfielder Billy O’Hara, had joined the Canadian armed forces following that season. “The training grounds of the Royal Flying corps were situated close to the ball park,” said O’Hara. “I used to stand out there [in the outfield] and watch the airplanes whizzing over our heads.”99 Cook would have shared that view.
Following his suspension in 1916, Cook accepted an invitation from the 228th Battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Forces (CEF) to pitch in an exhibition game in North Bay, Ontario. Cook won the game, and was recruited to join the batallion.100
On June 3, 1916, ten months before United States President Woodrow Wilson declared war on Germany and Eddie Grant enlisted in the US army, Cook enlisted as a private in the CEF. The born-and-raised American signed an oath to “bear true Allegiance to His Majesty King George the Fifth.”101 Cook’s profession was listed as Civil Engineer, his religion as Unitarian (like his grandfather F.S. Frost), and his height and weight were given as 5-foot-9 and 158 pounds. A half-inch-long scar over his left eye was noted, possibly a lasting mark of the tussle in Toledo five years previously.
It was reported that Cook was unlikely to fight abroad,102 and injuries initially prevented his deployment overseas. In August, Cook, now based at Camp Borden, Ontario, was admitted to Casualty Hospital, Niagara with a sprained thumb and a contused thigh. In October he reported to the same institution with sinusitis, a malady that afflicted him though the end of the following year, and at some point—likely between October 1916 and February 1917—his right shoulder was accidentally broken. Cook earned a promotion to lieutenant, but his injuries meant that the 228th Battalion left for Europe without him on February 16, 1917.
On September 25, 1917, the Indianapolis Indians—champions of the American Association—arrived in Toronto to compete with the International League champion Leafs in the Little World Series. Meeting the Indians on the field during practice was Cook, dressed in his lieutenant’s uniform and still recovering from his illnesses. He greeted the manager and players, many of whom were old opponents from his Columbus days, and threw a few pitches in practice.103
Cook finally embarked for Europe on May 16, 1918. He arrived in England on May 29, traveled to the Canadian base at Purfleet in the southeast of the country, and proceeded to France on June 25. He joined up with his old battalion, now designated as the 6th Canadian Railway Troops and responsible for constructing light railways at the front. He remained with the unit through the end of the war.
In a 1922 book documenting the Princeton class of 1908, Cook wrote, “War is not a good thing to talk about, but I am glad I was there and helped smash the much talked of Hindenberg [sic] Line and get some of the bunch that gave us hell.”104 He also confessed his disdain for his commanding officer and recounted that, prior to the armistice of November 11, 1918, his unit was “practically surrounded and in a position which might be described as delicate.”105
The process of demobilization lasted well into 1919, and Cook spent January to August of that year stationed at the bases of Witley and Knotty Ash in England. In this time he received a promotion to Acting Captain. Cook finally left Europe on August 21 on the S.S. Columbia, sailing from Glasgow to New York. He was “struck off strength” (discharged) in September.
Cook spent some months fishing in Canada before taking a job “working on publicity and new business in the Commonwealth Trust Company” in Toronto.106 His wife, Lauretta Estelle Cook, had been living in Toronto while Fred served in the army. Within a year of Fred’s return from Europe she petitioned for divorce, alleging adultery, and was granted a dissolution of the marriage on July 1, 1920.107
Cook’s contribution to the Princeton University book published in 1922 included some photographs of him in uniform, but he made no mention of his baseball career.
He appears to have remained in Toronto for the rest of his life. In 1955 he was admitted to Sunnybrook Hospital, a veteran’s care hospital in Toronto, for domiciliary care, and he stayed there until his death from lung cancer on August 8, 1958, at the age of 76.108
Cook was buried on August 12 at Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the family plot of his grandfather F.S. Frost. On the same day, his older brother Herbert died of a heart attack. The burials of the two brothers were overseen by their only surviving sibling, Helen Adelaide. Neither brother appeared to have any other surviving relatives, and providing a headstone was too burdensome a cost for Helen, who contacted the Canadian Department of Veterans Affairs for help with Fred’s burial costs.109
Unlike other ballplayers who served overseas in the Great War, Cook was not celebrated in his time. By playing in the majors under a false name and serving in a foreign army, Cook unwittingly contributed to his legacy as the forgotten man in baseball’s military history.
This biography was reviewed by Bill Lamb and Norman Macht and fact-checked by Kevin Larkin.
Sources for the biographical information provided above include US Census and other Cook family data accessed via Familysearch.org; Canadian military records accessed via Library and Archives Canada; burial information provided by Stephen Pinkerton of the Research Department at Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Fred Winchell file maintained at the Giamatti Research Center, National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, Cooperstown, New York; and various newspaper articles listed in the endnotes. Major league statistics have been taken from Baseball-Reference.
1 In the Massachusetts Birth Register his first name is spelled “Frederic”.
2 William Richard Cutter, Historic Homes and Places and Genealogical and Personal Memoirs Relating to the Families of Middlesex County, Massachusetts (New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1908), 491.
3 Jourdan Houston, “Francis Seth Frost (1825-1902): Beyond Bierstadt’s Shadow,” American Art Review 6, no.4 (1994), 146.
4 “M’Graw to Try Former Collegian,” Akron Beacon Journal, January 4, 1915: 11.
5 “New Students,” Exonian, January 15, 1902: 4.
6 Phillips Exeter Academy, The Pean (Phillips Exeter Academy, 1904), 25.
7 “Princeton, 4; Exeter, 3,” Exonian, April 29, 1903: 1.
8 “Andover 1; Exeter, 0,” Exonian, June 10, 1903: 1.
9 “Andover Wins,” Phillipian, June 10, 1903: 1.
10 “Exeter Events,” Portsmouth (New Hampshire) Herald, June 30, 1903: 2.
11 Henry Beach Needham, “The College Athlete. His Amateur Code: Its Evasion and Administration. Part II,” McClure’s Magazine 25 (1905), 261.
12 “Another Victory,” Exonian, June 15, 1904: 1.
13 Phillips Exeter Academy, The Pean (Phillips Exeter Academy, 1904), 25.
14 Phillips Exeter Academy, The Pean (Phillips Exeter Academy, 1904), 191.
15 Catalogue of Princeton University: One Hundred and Fifty-Eighth Year, 1904-1905 (Princeton University Press, 1904), 351.
16 “Annual Sophomore-Freshman Baseball Game Results in a Tie,” Princetonian, October 10, 1904: 1.
17 “P.E.A. Nuts,” Exonian, December 7, 1904: 2.
18 “Tigers Now Expect a Champion Team,” Trenton Times, April 21, 1905: 15.
19 Edwin E. Slosson, Great American Universities (New York: Macmillan, 1910), 104.
20 Kenneth O’Reilly, “The Jim Crow Policies of Woodrow Wilson,” The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education 17, Autumn (1997), 117.
21 David B. Potts, Wesleyan University, 1831–1910: Collegiate Enterprise in New England (Wesleyan University Press, 1992), 210.
23 “Princeton, 5; Wesleyan, 1,” Princetonian, April 27, 1905: 1.
24 “Eighteen Hits and Eighteen Runs,” Princeton Alumni Weekly 5, no. 35 (June 10, 1905), 593-595.
25 “Remarkable Hitting,” Princetonian, June 5, 1905: 1.
26 “Yale 3, Princeton 2,” Princeton Alumni Weekly 5, no. 36 (June 17, 1905), 622.
27 “Yale Won Final Game and the Championship,” New York Times, June 18, 1905: 11.
28 “M’Graw to Try Former Collegian,” Akron Beacon Journal, January 4, 1915: 11.
29 “P.E.A. Nuts,” Exonian, December 9, 1905: 1.
30 “Morrow Admits That 1906 Team is a Lively Crew,” San Antonio Gazette, February 24, 1906: 3.
31 “Committee is in Austin to Work on League Books,” San Antonio Express, January 2, 1912: 10.
32 “Fred Winchell Showing Great Form on Strip,” San Antonio Express, May 9, 1909: 24.
33 “Plays Fort Worth Today,” San Antonio Express, April 20, 1906: 9.
34 “Was Unlucky Day for the Bronchos,” San Antonio Express, June 22, 1906: 9.
35 “Bronchos Come Home After Five Victories,” San Antonio Express, June 21, 1906: 9.
36 “Played 16 Innings Without a Flaw,” San Antonio Light, May 18, 1906: 2.
37 Henry Chadwick, ed., Spalding’s Official Base Ball Guide 1907: Thirty First Year (New York: American Sports Publishing Company, 1907), 282.
38 “South Texas League,” Sporting Life, August 11, 1906: 3.
39 “Good Ones for the Bronchos,” San Antonio Light, November 23, 1906: 2.
40 “Fred Cook Quits Bronchos,” San Antonio Light, February 15, 1907: 2.
41 “Fred Cook Gets Chance at Last,” San Antonio Light and Gazette, September 17, 1909: 9.
42 “Boll Weevils Lose to Bronchos in a Good Game,” San Antonio Express, April 27, 1907: 9.
43 “Bronchos Won from Temple in the Eleventh,” San Antonio Express, April 29, 1907: 7.
44 “Bronchos Win in the Last Half of Tenth Inning,” San Antonio Express, April 28, 1907: 11.
45 “Fred Cook Signs with the Bronchos,” San Antonio Gazette, July 15, 1907: 8.
46 “Fred Clark not Cook to Play with Bronchos,” San Antonio Gazette, July 16, 1907: 3.
47 “Diamond Dope,” San Antonio Light, July 19, 1907: 6.
48 “Broncs Tore Loose Second,” San Antonio Light, July 20, 1907: 5.
49 “Fred Cook Gets Chance at Last,” San Antonio Light and Gazette, September 17, 1909: 9.
50 “Baseball Talk of Local Interest,” San Antonio Light, February 14, 1908: 6.
51 “League Season of 1908 Opens with a Defeat,” San Antonio Express, April 19, 1908: 23.
52 “Thirteenth is Waterloo,” San Antonio Light, June 22, 1908: 6.
53 “Bronchos Have the Pennant for Next Year,” San Antonio Express, September 8, 1908: 11.
54 “Winchell in Town,” San Antonio Express, February 13, 1909: 7.
55 “Views of the Copy Kid,” San Antonio Light and Gazette, July 30, 1909: 9.
56 “Fred Winchell Showing Great Form on Strip,” San Antonio Express, May 9, 1909: 24.
57 “Who’ll Be on Top in Texas League Tonight,” San Antonio Light and Gazette, May 12, 1909: 11.
58 “Views of the Copy Kid,” San Antonio Light and Gazette, August 12, 1909: 7.
59 “Winchell Has Bad Arm,” San Antonio Express, September 2, 1909: 10.
60 Lloyd Johnson and Miles Wolff, ed., Encyclopedia of Minor League Baseball, Third Edition, (Baseball America, 2007).
61 Ed F. Bang, “Cleveland’s Chapter,” Sporting Life, September 18, 1909: 5.
62 “Fred Cook Gets Chance at Last,” San Antonio Light and Gazette, September 17, 1909: 9.
63 “Winchell Plays Joke on Others,” San Antonio Light and Gazette, September 27, 1909: 7.
64 “M’Guire Expects a Winning Club,” (Cleveland, Ohio) Plain Dealer, October 5, 1909: 8.
65 “Winter Ball League to Open Operations Today,” San Antonio Express, November 7, 1909: 5.
66 “Hinchman Let Out,” Boston Globe, February 2, 1910: 5.
67 “Winchell to Columbus,” San Antonio Light and Gazette, April 2, 1910: 6.
68 “Senators Take Doc Cook Back,” Dayton Herald, August 19, 1910: 13.
69 “Triumphant Opening,” Sporting Life, May 14, 1910: 22.
70 “The Central League,” Sporting Life, November 12, 1910: 8.
71 “Senators Take Doc Cook Back,” Dayton Herald, August 19, 1910: 13.
72 “American Association Averages,” Sporting Life, September 24, 1910: 15.
73 “Columbus’ Cheery Chirp,” Sporting Life, April 22, 1911: 13.
74 “Players Beat Up,” Toledo News-Bee, July 17, 1911: 5.
75 “Newsy Sportlets,” Dayton Herald, July 17, 1911: 8.
76 “American Association Affairs,” Sporting Life, July 29, 1911: 15.
77 “Ball Players Assaulted, Winnipeg Tribune,” July 17, 1911: 7.
78 “Short Sport for New Castle Fans,” New Castle (Pennsylvania) News, July 22, 1911: 9.
79 “Cook Reinstated,” Cincinnati Enquirer, July 25, 1911: 9.
80 “By Whipping The Mud Hens Cook Equaled the Association’s Record,” Toledo News-Bee, September 11, 1911: 8.
81 “Wins Ten Straight; Fine Is Remitted,” Sunday Herald, Boston, September 17, 1911: 38.
82 “Committee is in Austin to Work on League Books,” San Antonio Express, January 2, 1912: 10.
83 “The American Association,” Sporting Life, December 30, 1911: 16.
84 “Former Broncho in Town,” San Antonio Express, October 14, 1911: 10.
85 “Fred Cook with Columbus,” Galveston News, February 16, 1912: 8.
86 “American Ass’n 1912 Pitching,” Sporting Life, December 21, 1912: 14.
87 “American Association Pitching,” Sporting Life, December 27, 1913: 18.
88 National Baseball Hall of Fame File on Frederick Russell Winchell.
89 “All-Pros Will Meet Higgins’ Team Today,” San Antonio Light, October 26, 1913: 18.
90 “Feds Seeking Fred Cook,” San Antonio Express, February 1, 1914: 1.
91 National Baseball Hall of Fame File on Frederick Russell Winchell.
92 “National League Notes,” Sporting Life, October 3, 1914: 10.
93 “Giants’ Forces Now Hold Marlin,” New York Times, March 1, 1915: 7.
94 “Marlin Gives Fish Fry to the Giants,” New York Times, March 25, 1915: 9.
95 “The Giants,” Sporting Life, March 27, 1915: 8.
96 “Kauff Barred from National,” Boston Globe, May 1, 1915: 7.
97 “Double Victory for Clymer’s Boys,” Toronto World, September 11, 1915: 8.
98 “Pitcher Released by Toronto Joins Army in Northern Ontario,” Windsor (Ontario) Star, June 21, 1916: 8.
99 Jim Leeke, From the Dugouts to the Trenches: Baseball During the Great War (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2017), 23.
100 “Pitcher Released by Toronto Joins Army in Northern Ontario,” Windsor (Ontario) Star, June 21, 1916: 8.
101 Frederick Russell Cook Service File, Library and Archives Canada.
102 “Pitcher Released by Toronto Joins Army in Northern Ontario,” Windsor (Ontario) Star, June 21, 1916: 8.
103 “Indians Meet Old Friends in Canada,” Indianapolis News, September 25, 1917: 12.
104 The Class of 1908, Approaching the Fifteenth: 1908 in 1922 (Princeton: University of Princeton Press, 1922), 63-65.
105 Class of 1908
106 Class of 1908
107 Acts of the Parliament of the Dominion of Canada (13th Parliament, 4th Session), Vol II: Local and Private Acts, (Ottawa: Thomas Mulvey, 1920), 145.
108 National Baseball Hall of Fame File on Frederick Russell Winchell.
109 Email correspondence with Stephen Pinkerton, Research Docent at Mount Auburn Cemetery, November 17, 2018.