1947 Winter Meetings: Latin America, Leo the Lip, and High School Hijinks

This article was written by Gary Levy

This article was published in the Baseball’s Business: The Winter Meetings: 1901-1957


The annual Winter Meetings of the National Association ventured to sunny Miami to hold sessions in the McAllister and Columbus hotels from December 3-5, 1947. Major-league representatives stayed at the McAllister, Columbus, or Martinique hotels.1 The annual joint meetings of the American and National Leagues followed shortly afterward, in frosty New York City, at the luxurious Waldorf-Astoria over December 9-11.

Major issues that arose again at both gatherings included the drafting of players out of high school, expanded play in Cuba and Latin America (perhaps the reason for the Miami locale for the National Association meetings?), the possible return of manager Leo Durocher to Brooklyn after a one-year suspension, and continued experimentation with night baseball and baseball on television.

Much controversy and disparity was also present across baseball, as many thought that Joe DiMaggio’s winning of the American League MVP Award over Ted Williams by one vote (202-201) was a bum deal.2 Finally, much was made of an end to the career of many longtime stars, including Hank Greenberg, Stan Hack, Mel Harder, Billy Jurges, Thornton Lee, Ernie Lombardi, Joe Medwick, Red Ruffing, and Mel Ott, at the end of the previous 1947 season, all said to be “trading spiked shoes for bedroom slippers.”3

Regardless of the many issues facing major-league baseball, the two leagues continued to thrive as six of eight teams in the National League (Boston, Brooklyn, Chicago, New York, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis) all set home attendance records and drew over one million fans. (Not far behind were Cincinnati and Philadelphia who both drew about 900,000 home fans.) All told, the National League drew almost 10.4 million, with home and away games involving Brooklyn, which lost to the Yankees in the seven-game 1947 World Series, accounting for over 1.8 million spectators. In fact, only home and away games involving the Phillies failed to draw two million.4 The American League pulled in almost 9.5 million, with half of the eight teams drawing over one million (Boston, Cleveland, Detroit and New York). Yankee attendance alone exceeded two million. American League attendance might have approached that of the NL if the St. Louis Browns had drawn more than their paltry 320,474.

Not surprisingly, rumors swirled aplenty about the Browns being purchased and moved out of St. Louis, quite possibly to Baltimore or Los Angeles. Robert Rodenberg, owner of the Baltimore Colts of the All-American Football Conference, was originally thought to be in the lead to land the Browns, but a handful of other potential buyers also emerged in the Chicago, Kansas City, and Los Angeles markets. But a sale of the Browns, and their St. Louis ballpark (the somewhat dilapidated Sportsman’s Park, which also hosted the National League Cardinals), was far from a straightforward matter. The hope was that the Cardinals would be interested in purchasing the ballpark from the Browns, but movement on that point had been sluggish at best. Most significant was the opposition by Washington Senators owner Clark Griffith, who quipped, “Bob Rodenberg had better read the rules of baseball before talking about bringing a major-league franchise into Baltimore.” 5

The 1947 National Association convention was a record-breaker, with official registrations reaching 1,200 and upward of 400 additional baseball officials, players, and writers attending the Miami meetings.6 The convention began officially on December 3 with a welcome address from Judge Wayne Allen, president of the International League, as well as Miami Mayor Robert Floyd, and Dr. Rafael Inclan, president of the Cuban Professional League. Inclan spoke about the large expansion of organized baseball in Cuba and his pleasure in becoming associated with the National Association.7 The annual banquet was held on December 4, and included a greeting from Florida Governor Millard Caldwell. Eastern League President Tommy Richardson served as master of ceremonies and introduced the new St. Louis Cardinals owner, former US Postmaster General Bob Hannegan. The banquet ended with a two-hour spectacular showcasing local talent from Miami’s many nightspots.8

The convention spanned several days, with plenty of time built in for attendees to enjoy the many attractions of Miami, as well as a trip to Cuba. (Havana was 228 miles from Miami.) Some convention attendees decided to remain in Miami after the meetings to attend the dedication of the new Everglades National Park on December 6.9 Both newspaper writers and league presidents took up Havana Mayor Nicolas Castellanos on his invitation to visit the island nation during the convention to see the baseball being played there.10

Upon his return from the island, National Association President George M. Trautman praised the Cuban leagues, their players, and their fans, noting that in Cuba the game was played year-round.11 Although the Cuban leagues were considered “unclassified affiliates,” they had been approved by the National Association to select minor-league players for their rosters with the consent of their teams. During these meetings, the National Association would expand its presence in Latin America by adding unclassified affiliates in Venezuela and Panama, starting in 1948, while Puerto Rico League President Jorge Cordova also actively pursued the same agreement. Mexican Baseball Commissioner Alejandro Aguilar also announced his league’s interest in forming an agreement. “Eventually, perhaps, the majors might even establish farm clubs in Latin-American leagues and uncover future Big League prospects among the native talent,” The Sporting News editorialized.12

However, the single most pressing item facing resolution at the meetings was, again, a request by Pacific Coast League President Clarence Rowland that the league be certified for special dual minor/major-league status, thus raising its standing above that of the American Association.13 The PCL would in turn change its name to Pacific Major League and be under the supervision of major-league baseball, its commissioner, and its executive committee. However, the requested special status would still require the PML to agree to certain minor-league rules and draft practices. For example, the PML would require a player to have six years of service (instead of the current four years) before they would be eligible for the major-league draft, and the selection price would increase from $10,000 to $25,000.

In return, the PML would drop its right to draft players from any Triple-A league teams and would agree to pay increased prices to leagues in the lower classifications, and to waive its rights to draft umpires from any classification.14 The draft of PCL players in the new organization would not go through the National Association; it would be overseen by the commissioner.15 This was at least the third time that Rowland had attempted to push this type of arrangement forward.16

The request was thought by some to be a means of calming some PCL teams and fans (and owners) who had repeatedly requested immediate recognition and transformation to full major-league status, in addition to a fear by some PCL members that certain teams might “go outlaw” if left to their own means. The request detailed a five-year period in which individual PCL teams could transition from minor- into major-league status, unless the entire PCL itself became a major-league division.

On November 30, before the convention began, American Association President Frank C. Lane met with league directors in Miami to mount an opposition group. Lane said that though he couldn’t speak officially at that point, “I am strongly of the opinion we will oppose the inconsistency of the Coast League’s proposal.”17

PCL President Rowland’s proposal met significant opposition during the convention, but nonetheless awaited a final decision by the American and National Leagues in their December meetings. Toward the end of the National Association convention Rowland was overhead to say, “I don’t know whether or not we are going to get the brush [from the major leagues]. I do know that the Pacific Coast League should be a major league right now, but if it isn’t so recognized, a lot of kibitzers who think there’s going to be an invasion of Los Angeles and San Francisco may as well mute their trumpets. And the same goes for the fellows who are suggesting that the American and National be expanded to include Los Angeles, San Francisco, Oakland, and Hollywood.”18

Before leaving Miami to attend the major-league meetings in New York, Happy Chandler denied that he was going to recommend to major-league owners that the PCL clubs in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Oakland, and Hollywood be reorganized into major-league clubs, but the San Francisco Examiner wrote that “Chandler positively will make such a recommendation and it’s better than an even money that it will receive the blessing of the American and National leagues.”19

Meanwhile, Robert L. Finch, director of public relations for the National Association, urged that major building and rehabilitation be done on ballparks throughout the minor leagues. Finch estimated the total property value of the 388 parks in the minors to be more than $54 million. Finch said a survey of minor-league ballparks showed that many were in need of significant repair. “For an institution that is proclaimed to be the national game of the United States of America, this is not too creditable a picture,” he said.20

Unsatisfactory conditions in Triple-A parks included lack of restroom and concession spaces, poor seats, no roofs or ramps, inadequate parking, and insufficiently short left fields. Aging grandstands and locations in industrial and/or poor neighborhoods were also mentioned. According to the survey, Double-A ballparks had many of the same deficiencies, and some were too small and fire hazards. Ballparks in Class A leagues lacked visitor club dressing rooms, inadequate umpire quarters (including no baths), poor restrooms, a lack of public transportation to the ballparks and grandstand posts obstructing fan views. Class B, C, and D ballparks were also cited for poor drainage, excessive mud, light poles on the field, condemned facilities, inadequate drinking facilities, and more.21 Finch concluded, “It is an axiom that where the best people go the crowd will follow. The best people will not patronize shabby parks for long.”

In other business, Minneapolis was approved as the site for the 1948 National Association meetings.22 Discussion of making batting helmets mandatory also peaked in light of the near-fatal beaning of St. Paul shortstop Bob Ramazzotti. Reporters noted an atypically large number of sporting-goods manufacturers on hand. Wares displayed ranged from bats, mitts, and player equipment to ballpark lights, tarpaulins, and animated scoreboards. Coca-Cola was there handing out key-chain souvenir flashlights.23

A player-pension plan for minor-league players similar to that for major leaguers was presented in Miami, but no commitments were made and it remained doubtful that such a plan would ever be approved because of factors such as brief careers, frequent movement, and the relatively low pay of many minor-league players.24

Some significant decisions were made, by delegates, in part because of a new arrangement that allowed league presidents, along with two delegates from each club, to be the only parties to vote on official Association matters. The delegates approved a uniform standard for resiliency of the baseball that would go into full effect in 1949. Other regulations approved included a larger player limit for teams in Class B, C, and D leagues, with the aim being better baseball, and an agreement that both players and club officials sign official affidavits on player contracts to avoid any salary shenanigans.25 Protection and membership fees for the National Association were increased temporarily for the year, from 2 percent to 3 percent for player transactions. All minor-league players were approved to play winter ball after October 31 regardless of length of service to their home club. This rule was intended to make it easier for players to participate in Cuban, Panamanian, Puerto Rican, and Venezuelan league play, all under agreement with the National Association.

Several scoring rule changes were adopted with the aim of greater uniformity in scoring throughout the minor leagues. A December 4 meeting of more than 30 official scorers, statisticians, and writers at the McAllister Hotel led by Bob Hooey, sports editor of the (Columbus) Ohio State Journal. Their recommendations included requesting all news wire services to use the same type of box-score form; permitting the official scorer some discretion on plays where a batter is awarded three bases because a fielder throws his glove at a batted ball (should the batter be credited with a single, double, or triple; should the fielder be charged with an error?); changing the rule so that a batter interfered with while running to first base would not be charged with an at-bat; charging the catcher with an error on catcher’s-interference plays; listing of each pitcher’s complete record in the box score, including runs and earned runs allowed; requiring a starting pitcher to work at least five full innings of a nine-inning game before being eligible for a win; and recommending that a digest of differences between scoring rules in the minors and majors be compiled.26 In a related move, National Association President Trautman was expected to create a committee of writers and scorekeepers to “serve as a central bureau for clarification of other scoring problems.”27

The Western League’s hope of expanding from its current eight teams failed, with the Topeka club deciding to remain in the Western Association. Kansas City, Kansas, was determined to be ineligible for a team as long as its twin city in Missouri refused to give up its territorial control. The Cedar Rapids, Iowa, team decided to enter the Three-I League rather than join the Western League.28 It was reported that Trautman’s predecessor, Judge William G. Bramham, who had retired at the 1946 convention and had died in July 1947, was reported to have left an estate estimated at $41,663. The National Association voted to provide his widow with a monthly pension of $200. Bramham was the National Association president from 1932 to 1946.29

Several player sales and swaps and player personnel decisions involving minor-league teams were made during the meeting, particularly near its conclusion.30 The first official deal of the convention was the purchase of right-handed pitcher Dick Callahan by the Atlanta Crackers of the Double-A Southern Association from the Triple-A American Association Louisville Colonels.31 However, the meetings were lacking in deals involving major-league clubs. “Outside of the sales of veteran Pittsburgh first baseman Elbie Fletcher to the Cleveland Indians and Jeff Heath of the St. Louis Browns to the Braves, the player mart at the convention was dull.32 The New York Giants were interested in southpaw Johnny Vander Meer of the Reds, but could not come to an agreement on which outfielder Cincinnati wanted in return. The Reds were looking to part with shortstop Eddie Miller, particularly to an interested Cubs club, but no deal emerged. However, former major-league catcher (and future major-league manager) Al Lopez, who had been released by the Indians, was hired as player-manager of the American Association’s Indianapolis Indians.33

As for the major-league meetings, the American and National Leagues held separate sessions in New York City December 9 and 10, and met jointly on the 11th at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. The meetings allowed the major-league magnates to meet Robert E. Hannegan, the new owner of the St. Louis Cardinals, and afforded Baltimore Colts owner Bob Rodenberg the opportunity to test the waters on his proposition to purchase the St. Louis Browns.34 Issues of high priority for the meetings were possible decisions regarding the drafting of high-school, college, and American Legion players. The American League owners gave league President Will Harridge a new 10-year contract. In July their National League brethren had given their president, Ford Frick, a four-year extension. Both league presidents were paid $40,000 annually.35

Controversy had arisen before the meetings, resulting in a high-profile tiff between Commissioner Chandler and Chicago White Sox general manager Leslie M. O’Connor (who had served as secretary to Chandler’s predecessor, Kenesaw Mountain Landis). The feud came about when the White Sox signed George Zoeterman, a 17-year-old high-school left-hander from Chicago Christian High School to a 1947 contract as a batting-practice pitcher and a player contract for 1948. The contracts had been approved by A.L. President Harridge.

Chandler voided the deal as being in violation of major-league Rule 3 (often called the “high-school rule”) and major-minor league Rule 3, which contained provisions dictating signing of high-school players. He also fined the White Sox $500. O’Connor replied defiantly that the high-school rule explicitly applied to students in schools that were members of the National Federation of High Schools. (Zoeterman’s school was not.) Chandler replied that the “high-school rule will continue to be enforced as I have explained to you heretofore.” To which O’Connor replied, “I am regretfully obliged to inform you that, so far as our club is concerned, we will observe the rule as written and not otherwise.”36

A furious Chandler announced that the White Sox team was “denied representation under the major-league agreement” until the team complied with his directive. Chandler had essentially suspended the White Sox from all major-league activities, including the November player draft, and participating in any official business, let alone playing the 1948 season.37 Chandler also acted to remove O’Connor from the Executive Council. American League President Harridge called a “special meeting” of AL club owners for October 31 in Cleveland.

At the meeting the AL owners were ordered by Chandler to name someone to replace O’Connor on the Executive Council.38 If O’Connor hoped his league would back him, he was disappointed. The AL owners decided unanimously to “keep hands off” Chandler’s decision. They also voted to appoint a new member to replace O’Connor on the Executive Council.39 A disappointed O’Connor remarked that he would have an announcement the next week about his intentions, “But you shouldn’t have much trouble guessing the answer.”40

The next week the White Sox paid the $500 fine and Chandler lifted the suspensions of O’Connor and the White Sox. O’Connor apologized publicly, offered to resign his position (it was declined, though O’Connor did step down a year later), and admitted to behaving stubbornly and not in the best interests of baseball.

Zoeterman became a free agent, and after graduating in January he was eligible to sign with any major-league club except the White Sox. Zoeterman said he was sorry he couldn’t play for his hometown White Sox, but that 12 other major-league clubs had made him offers. He signed with the Chicago Cubs, but left baseball after three years in the minors.

This controversy over the high-school rule led to further action regarding the recruitment of amateurs. The American Association of College Baseball Coaches asked that the majors prohibit the signing of college players until their class had graduated, but although the Executive Council had recommended a “hands-off” policy, the majors tabled the proposal, which basically killed it. A separate suggestion that clubs could not recruit American Legion ballplayers was also tabled and left to die.

The New York Giants had been expected to go all out at the major-league meetings to land pitching help, but determined that other teams were trying to exact too high a price for hurlers. For example, Philadelphia was open to trading but the Giants would have had to give up outfielder-pitcher Carl Hartung and infielder Buddy Blattner. Other clubs asked the Giants for untouchable players like first baseman Johnny Mize, to which Giants GM Mel Ott responded, “Nothing doing.” Mize had led the NL in 1947 with 51 home runs, 138 RBIs, and 137 runs scored.41

The return of a major-league manager to active status following a suspension would ordinarily have been a mundane affair, but nothing about Leo Durocher was ever boring. Durocher’s 1947 suspension as Brooklyn manager was based on an “accumulation of unpleasant incidents” alluded to by Commissioner Chandler. Making things more complicated, replacement manager Burt Shotton had directed the team to the National League pennant in 1947, and a seven-game World Series loss to the Yankees.42 Rickey had hoped to announce Durocher’s return as manager in early December, but resistance to that notion had grown from a small group in Brooklyn (likely the Catholic Youth Organization). Father Vincent J. Powell, diocesan director of the CYO, had just met with Dodgers president Branch Rickey, who likely shared the CYO’s attitudes regarding Durocher.43 Durocher had met several times with Rickey.44 The final decision was Rickey’s to make, and he said he was not sure yet if Durocher would be asked to manage or if he would renew Shotton .45

The fan outcry for Durocher’s return began shortly after the end of the World Series, but any official announcement about the issue was slow to emerge. Lou Niss, sports editor of the Brooklyn Eagle, wrote, “All the evidence points to Branch Rickey’s desire to name Durocher. It must be remembered that he didn’t fire him. Commissioner Albert Benjamin Chandler did that.”46 The uncertainty likely contributed to a blunder by the National League at its annual managers’ dinner, where the manager of the NL team that had won the pennant was to be recognized. The event was quickly canceled once it was realized that the winning manager, Shotton, was perhaps no longer manager.47

The Pittsburgh Pirates rebuilt almost their entire infield, replacing everyone but third baseman Frankie Gustine. “The remainder of the inner works will have a definite Brooklyn tinge,” with former Dodgers Eddie Stevens at first, Monty Basgall at second, and Stan Rojek at short.48 As it happened, Danny Murtaugh emerged as the team’s everyday second baseman. The Pirates retained only Ralph Kiner in the outfield so more changes were in the works in the Steel City. The Pirates also sent infielders Billy Cox and Gene Mauch and southpaw Preacher Roe to Brooklyn in exchange for All-Star outfielder Dixie Walker (the 1946 MVP runner-up), right-hander Hal Gregg, and lefty Vic Lombardi. Pittsburgh also sent Brooklyn $100,000. In the end, the Pirates added 18 new faces, including manager Bill Meyer, and released, traded, or sold numerous players, including such notables as right-hander Jim Bagby Jr. (released); first baseman-outfielder and future Hall of Famer Hank Greenberg (retired), and outfielder Gene Woodling (sent to minors, where he was eventually purchased by the Yankees and made substantial contributions to their run of five straight World Series triumphs).

Significant controversy surrounded trades involving St Louis Browns infielder Johnny Berardino. Originally, the Browns had traded Berardino to the Senators for infielder Jerry Priddy and $25,000. However, upon hearing of the trade, Bernardino announced he would retire from baseball to pursue an acting career. Commissioner Chandler refused to immediately cancel the deal, merely holding it in abeyance, but then Senators president Clark Griffith asked the Browns to cancel the trade, which they agreed to do, and Washington instead sold Priddy to St. Louis for $25,000.49 St. Louis proceeded to trade Berardino again, this time to Cleveland, for outfielder-first baseman George Metkovich and $60,000, with the Browns “guaranteeing delivery of the player.” Experts noted that, technically, the trade sending Berardino to Washington could not have been voided until the infielder refused to report to Washington and/or had been asked to be placed onto the voluntarily retired list.50 At least one owner was not pleased by this, stating, “If a player can get himself sold to the club of his choice by alternately retiring and returning to the active list then the player, and not the club, is dictating the deal.”51

The New York Yankees finally completed a trade, sending outfielder-third baseman Allie Clark to the Indians for right-handed pitcher Red Embree at the end of the meetings. Ironically the Yanks could have secured Embree from the Tribe when they traded second baseman Joe Gordon to Cleveland in 1946, but the Yanks chose another right-hander, Allie Reynolds, instead. For their part, the Yankees had more important concerns at this time, as Joe DiMaggio remained unsigned, and wanted a significant raise from his 1947 salary of $42,500.52

Less than three weeks earlier, the Red Sox had made news by sending nine players plus $165,000 to the St. Louis Browns in two separate deals made on consecutive days. In exchange, the Red Sox received two All-Stars, shortstop Vern Stephens and right-handed pitcher Jack Kramer, plus Ellis Kinder, another righty. Now in their bid to return to the World Series, they picked up another former All-Star, outfielder Stan Spence, from Washington for second baseman Al Kozar and outfielder Leon Culberson.53

Baseball continued tweaking and experimenting with television, as well as night baseball. Early in the meetings the St. Louis Browns, whose attendance continued to lag, pushed forward a proposal to allow them unlimited night ball. However, Browns general manager Bill DeWitt quickly withdrew the proposal, presumably after sensing an overwhelming lack of support by other American League owners. Thus, night baseball rules remained the same as before – the Yankees, Tigers, and Red Sox refused to play more than two night games in any road series, and New York’s three teams, the Yankees, Giants, and Dodgers, refused to play more than 14 night games a year in their own ballparks.54

National League teams showed no such refusals regarding night ball, and seemed quite amenable to unlimited night play. Seemingly a more progressive league, the National League also recognized the potential of televised baseball, and at the meetings the league named a television committee composed of President Ford Frick and owners Phil Wrigley of Chicago, John Quinn of Boston, and Horace Stoneham of New York. “We don’t know exactly what to expect from television in the future, but I believe it will be terrific. It is in the same experimental state which radio was some time ago and we discovered that radio improved attendance. I believe we will find that television will have the same healthy effect,” Frick said.55

 

Notes

1 “Lobby Breezes From Miami,” The Sporting News, December 10, 1947: 21.

2 “Most Valuable Voting Under Fire,” The Sporting News, December 10, 1947: 12.

3 “Trading Spiked Shoes for Bedroom Slippers,” The Sporting News, December 19, 1947: 1.

4 “National Rejoices Over Gate Record,” The Sporting News, December 17, 1947: 6.

5 “L.A. vs. Baltimore in Bids for Browns,” The Sporting News, December 10, 1947: 1.

6 “1,200 Register for Convention,” The Sporting News, December 10, 1947: 5.

7 “Minors Adopt Changes in Their Rules,” The Sporting News, December 10, 1947: 16.

8 “Banquet Highlights Convention,” The Sporting News, December 10, 1947: 21.

9 “Scenic Views for Motorists,” The Sporting News, December 3, 1947: 3.

10 “Warm Greeting in Havana for Convention Delegates,” The Sporting News, December 10, 1947: 7.

11 “Trautman Visits Cuba: Praises O.B. League,” The Sporting News, December 10, 1947: 7.

12 “Majors Can Aid Latin-American Unity,” The Sporting News, December 10, 1947: 12.

13 “Coast Ambitions Facing A.A. Veto,” The Sporting News, November 19, 1947: 6.

14 “Coast to Make Stab for Major Status at Miami,” The Sporting News, November 19, 1947: 6.

15 “Coast Demands Dual Major-Minor Status,” The Sporting News, November 19, 1947: 1.

16 “Rowland Goes Home Empty-Handed,” The Sporting News, December 17, 1947: 12.

17 “Coast Ambitions Facing A.A. Veto.”

18 “Rowland Goes Home Empty-Handed.”

19 “Chandler Plan to Suggest Ten-Club Majors Denied,” The Sporting News, December 10, 1947: 10.

20 “Clean Up, Paint Up Parks – Plea to Minors,” The Sporting News, December 3, 1947: 1.

21 “Bigger and Better Minor Parks Demanded in Report by Finch,” The Sporting News, December 3, 1947: 2.

22 “Minneapolis to be Host to ’48 Minors’ Convention,” The Sporting News, December 10, 1947: 5.

23 “Lobby Breezes From Miami.”

24 “Pension Plan for Minors Offered at Miami Confab,” The Sporting News, December 10, 1947: 5.

25 “New Standards Go Into Effect in ’49; Attempt to Abolish Bonus Rule Defeated,” The Sporting News, December 10, 1947: 5.

26 “Minors Adopt Many Changes in Their Rules,” The Sporting News, December 10, 1947: 16.

27 “New Study Planned of Rules on Scoring,” The Sporting News, December 10, 1947: 21.

28 “Western Expansion Plan Dropped for ’48 – Johnson,” The Sporting News, December 10, 1947: 20.

29 “Bramham Estate Inventoried at $41,663,” The Sporting News, December 17, 1947: 1.

30 “Many Late Deals and Pilot Choices at Minors’ Confab,” The Sporting News, December 17, 1947: 13.

31 “Lobby Breezes From Miami.”

32 “Trade Winds Fall to Whisper Among Miami Palm Trees,” The Sporting News, December 10, 1947: 17.

33 “Lopez Appointed Manager of Indianapolis Indians,” The Sporting News, December 10, 1947: 17.

34 “Leagues Meet Dec. 9-10, Joint Session on Dec. 11,” The Sporting News, December 3, 1947: 5.

35 “Harridge Receives New 10-Year Pact,” The Sporting News, December 17, 1947: 5.

36 “Exchanges by O’Connor and Chandler Revealed,” The Sporting News, November 5, 1947: 4.

37 Ibid.

38 “Harridge, Who Approved Contracts, Calls Meeting,” The Sporting News, November 5, 1947: 4.

39 Ed Burns, “$500 Note Ends O’Connor-Chandler Feud,” The Sporting News, November 12, 1947, 5-6.

40 “O’Connor an ‘Able’ Arguer, But Failed to Sway League,” The Sporting News, November 12, 1947: 6.

41 “Giant Hunt for Pitcher Stalls When Rivals Ask Young Stars,” The Sporting News, December 12, 1947: 13.

42 “The Lip – And His Future,” The Sporting News, December 17, 1947: 12.

43 J.G. Taylor Spink, “Looping the Loops,” The Sporting News, November 19, 1947: 6.

44 “Buildup for Lip as Dodger Pilot Gains Speed,” The Sporting News, November 19, 1947: 1.

45 “Christmas on December 25 – But When Dodger Pilot?” The Sporting News, November 12, 1947: 2.

46 “Brooklyn Sports Editor Predicts Return of Leo,” The Sporting News, November 12, 1947: 2.

47 “Managers’ Dinner Lost in Dodger Pilot Shuffle,” The Sporting News, December 17, 1947: 5.

48 “One Title Already Won by Bucs – They’re Tops in N.L. Turnover,” The Sporting News, December 17, 1947: 9.

49 “Possible Precedent Seen in Dealings for Berardino,” The Sporting News, December 17, 1947, 7.

50 Ibid.

51 “Berardino The Shadow – He’s Here, Then There,” The Sporting News, December 17, 1947: 9.

52 “Stick-to-Finish Harris Obtains Embree at Last,” The Sporting News, December 17, 1947: 10.

53 “Deals, Hot in Miami, Chilled in Wintry Blasts at New York,” The Sporting News, December 17, 1947: 7.

54 “Browns’ Move to Permit Unlimited Night Ball Fails,” The Sporting News, December 17, 1947: 5.

55 “N.L. Studies Television and Its Future in Game,” The Sporting News, December 17, 1947: 5.

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