“The wildest pitching you ever saw would not make him weaken. Hot or slow, high or low, in or out, no matter where the ball came or how much the curve, it was all the same to Brown.” — Sporting Life1
Lew Brown probably could have stopped a cannon ball if one had been fired to home plate. He actually wanted to try. Former teammate and future Boston Globe writer Tim Murnane recalled being at a show in which a performer caught a fired cannon ball. Brown went to the management “and offered to catch the same ball fired at any speed the cannon would stand, for $2,500.” Murnane believed Brown would actually have attempted it if allowed since he had “seen him handle pitching that most any man of the present day would need a net to stop.” He described Brown as “stiff as an oak tree and as supple as the willow,” and “unequalled in his style and knowledge of the catcher’s position.”2
In a day when the catcher’s position didn’t come with any of the equipment we consider essential today, Brown, appropriately called “Hoss” or “Horse,” used his body to try and stop every pitch. “He caught in his games without gloves or mask,” wrote the Boston Herald, “and was absolutely fearless in his handling of the ball.”3 It is not known whether Brown eventually wore a mask or glove when most catchers began to use them in the 1880’s, but these were new inventions during his years.4 “Until sometime in the 1880’s,” wrote historian Peter Morris, “most catchers and first basemen were wearing no more than simple finger gloves, and most other fielders were bare-handed.”5 He also caught during the days when catchers didn’t crouch behind the plate, but rather stood upright, often with a stoop. Batters were still calling for high or low pitches, so there wasn’t the need for the secret signal-calling to pitchers as in today’s game. The distance from the pitcher’s box to home plate changed from 45-feet to 50-feet in 1881, still far less than the sixty-feet-six-inches of today.6 Errors were much more common in the field than any fan would tolerate in a major league game today, and catchers bore the brunt of faster pitching with little or no equipment. Passed balls were common.
Brown loved the challenging grunge work behind the plate and “nothing ever seemed to dampen his boyish spirits,” Murnane remembered.7 “Brownie” would “face the most erratic twirler that ever sent a ball over the home plate, and would catch in his most graceful style,” wrote the Globe.8 “Brown was,” remembered teammate Charles J. Foley, “without a doubt the toughest man that ever stood behind the bat.”9
Brown’s career lasted only seven seasons spent with six clubs in the National League, American Association, and Union Association, with two of those clubs winning pennants. Only two things kept Brown, a beast at home plate, from being called one of the greatest catchers of the 19th century. One was a weak throwing arm, which grew worse with time. The other was a desire for the bottle, which far overshadowed the throwing issue and would eventually lead Brown to throw away his promising career. He lost two years to careless living and didn’t live to see his 31st birthday. A promising career that could have been renowned as one of the greatest careers for catchers of his era was summed up simply by Peter Morris: “Brown was a standout catcher when sober.”10
Lewis J. Brown was born February 1, 1858, in Leominster, Massachusetts to John L. and Nettie Brown. The 1870 census reveals the Browns living with other families in the home of a John Higgins in the area of Washington Street in Boston. Lewis also had a younger sister, Blanche. John L. Brown is listed as a “house painter.” “Lew Brown’s parents were well to do,” Foley remembered, “and he had the best chance of all the boys to receive an education; but strange as it may seem, Lew preferred climbing six-story buildings in search of lead pipe and copper.”11
Brown played for the Boston Star junior amateur club from 1873-1874, although he may have played in 1872 as well. He was noticed by Foley, who invited Brown to be the club catcher. “He had never played ball,” wrote the Lowell Daily Citizen, “but thought he would try, and did so, making his debut by taking a fly-tip hot from the bat.”12 The club was organized by Father James Troy of Boston. Brown, and future Boston teammate John Morrill, were two eventual major leaguers who began with the Stars, which went undefeated and won the 1874 state amateur championship.13
Brown spent the 1875 season with the Lowell, Massachusetts club. The Lowell Daily Citizen reported that “the pitching and catching of Foley and Brown will rank with any first-class club.”14 Tragedy struck during the June 16 game at Lynn, Massachusetts. While watching his son play, Brown’s father suffered an apoplectic seizure and died at the age of 44.15
In September, Lowell played the Mutuals, an African-American team from Washington, D.C. The Lowells rapped out 27 hits and 16 runs, Brown reported to have made nine hits himself, along with only one passed ball allowed. “The Mutuals were treated right cordially by the spectators,” wrote the Daily Citizen, “who applauded them loudy [sic] at every possible chance.”16
The season finished on a high as Lowell beat the Lynn Live Oaks 1-0 in the final game of the state amateur championship. A key play of the game was a throw to Brown that cut down a run at the plate to preserve the shutout. Brown was also applauded for not allowing a passed ball in the game, called “by far the best ever played on the grounds.”17
Brown began the 1876 season with Lowell18 but soon signed with Boston of the National League. With catcher Cal McVey signing with Chicago, Boston was using John Morrill, Tim McGinley, and Jim O’Rourke behind the plate. Brown signed in the middle of June and made his first appearance on June 17, playing two innings and getting his first major league hit.19 Satisfied with Brown’s talent, Boston released McGinley.20 Morrill, Brown’s teammate with the Stars and Lowell, had signed with Boston in April.21 Brown’s salary for the season was listed as between $800-$1,000.22
Brown joined Boston just in time for a two-week road trip. On June 20 in Cincinnati he got his first start, batting second behind George Wright. Brown went 3-for-5 and scored twice in Boston’s 25-hit attack, a 14-7 win.23 “Brown,” wrote the Cincinnati Daily Enquirer, “shows that he has the material in him to make a No. 1 catcher.”24 Even as Boston was trounced in a three-game series at Chicago, being outscored 33-13, Brown made a positive impression. “The best exhibition of pluck, good temper and skill in all yesterday’s game was made by that unfortunate individual, Brown,” wrote the Chicago Tribune. “He stood up manfully before some of the worst pitching of the year and the wonder is that he did not allow about twenty balls to get to the fence.”25
By August, Brown was Boston’s #1 catcher, and the writers continued to be impressed. “The playing of Brown was particularly fine. Several difficult catches were credited to him, and he played his position without an error” wrote the Boston Daily Advertiser.26
“He is doing well,” manager Harry Wright said of his new catcher. “He is plucky and careful. I am going to bring him into first-class form.”27 Brown finished the season with a .210 batting average in 195 at-bats over 45 games. He also committed only 40 errors, for a .856 fielding percentage. The modern fan must consider that this was 1876 and 40 errors was not nearly the worst in the league for catchers: Nat Hicks led the league with 94, and Hall-of-Famer Deacon White had 64; Brown’s fielding percentage was third best among catchers, beating out White’s .844. Brown impressed Harry Wright so much that Wright gave him a four-year contract.28
Brown showed such endurance behind the plate that when Deacon White returned to Boston, the veteran played most of the 1877 season at first base and Brown did the majority of the catching. Brown’s 360 putouts in 55 games led the league for catchers, and his total putouts (including his handful of games played at first) ranked him fourth in the NL. His Range Factor (putouts plus assists divided by games played) was 7.76, by far the best in the league. His 49 errors were the most among catchers, but they were most likely due to poor throws trying to catch would-be base stealers. The stolen base was not an official statistic during Brown’s playing years, which masked his trouble throwing to second base. Brown also batted .253 with 31 RBIs for the season.
By this time Brown’s affection for a good drink or two was well known. A story was told that in 1877 Louisville players took Brown out on the town, where he became “awfully wild” and was out all night. But if their plan was to debilitate Brown before the next day’s game, it backfired on them. Brown handled 13 putouts and showed no ill effects of his late-night carousing.29
Brown was released by Boston prior to the 1878 season.30 While commended for his play on the field, there were unspoken issues with his conduct. “The Bostons lose an earnest worker,” mourned the Herald, “one of the best of catchers and hardest of hitters. He contributed much towards winning the pennant in ’77, and the management is not unmindful of his good deeds and worthy traits. The only regret is that he could not, being a Boston boy, have remained with the club for years, as he might have done but for a cause which Brown himself clearly understands. New scenes and associates may exercise a benign influence, and so it may be well for all concerned that the change be made.”31
Brown moved to the Providence club for 1878 and had his best season at the plate: .305 with 43 RBIs and a .453 slugging percentage. Brown caught 45 games but also played first, the outfield, and even pitched an inning of relief. Brown led the league for catchers when he turned 11 double plays. He committed 43 errors (second among catchers), but his putouts, assists, and fielding percentage were in the top five of catchers in the league. His Range Factor for catchers was 7.02, second in the league and ahead of White’s 6.44.
Murnane believed Brown hit the longest home run he had ever seen, and wrote about it 15 years later. “Every eye followed the ball,” Murnane recalled, “as it went sailing high up over the trees in deep center field. The center fielder reached the fence to see the ball sailing out over the grounds fully 75 feet above the fence and traveling along like a clamshell on the wind.” Murnane saw the ball clear a row of houses and land at a spot he estimated to be 75 yards beyond the fence.32 It happened on September 16, 1878 in an exhibition game in Cleveland against the Forest Citys. The Plain Dealer called it “the greatest hit ever seen on the grounds. It will long stand as the height of batters’ ambition. Striving to attain it may cause many a player to go out on a fly."33
In February of 1879, Brown took part in an offseason walking competition: the Championship of the Amateur Base Ball Pedestrians, held in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Brown engaged in a 50-mile walk with James Mutrie of a local baseball team. Brown dropped out of the race before finishing the 24th mile.34
Brown returned to Providence for the 1879 season. He began the year as the starting catcher, but his liabilities were becoming more obvious, especially on a competitive team. Brown’s arm had become so lame that it was “likely to prove disastrous to the Providences,” reported the Springfield Republican.35 The Plain Dealer reported, “Brown, catcher of the Providence nine, is a failure in throwing to second. The Clevelanders never failed to get second when they tried for it. Brown usually demoralizes [second baseman] McGeary by throwing at the ground in such a way there is no telling where the ball will go.”36
Providence was neck-and-neck with Chicago for the pennant, and Brown lost his starting job to Emil Gross, who caught 30 games down the stretch.37 Brown was a one-dimensional player: a big and strong backstop who struggled with other skills necessary for the position. “The success of Lew Brown and Silver Flint,” wrote Morris, “had created a brief vogue for the large catcher of the 1870s, but the trend proved short-lived because agility was still the catcher’s most important attribute.”38 Brown’s numbers declined. His 63 errors were now almost 20 more than any other catcher in the league, and while his range factor (7.27) was still best in the league, his fielding percentage of .847 was well below other catchers in the league, four of whom were .900 or higher.
Brown was released in either late July or early August by Providence and signed by Chicago, where he played in six games at first base. Ironically, he made his debut in the September 4 game at Providence amidst a heavy fog. Brown “by his fine play saving many a throw,” handled first base in a 10-3 loss.39 Chicago was swept in the three-game series, and Brown watched as his old team went on to win the pennant while Chicago fell to 4-12 in September. That month, the Plain Dealer noted that Brown was “again in trouble,” and left the team for “a few day’s vacation, and failed to rejoin them…and it looks very much as if Brown would get the grand bounce.”40 The Chicago Tribune said the last Brown had been seen was on a train headed back to Lowell “and can probably be found there by anybody desirous of communicating with him.”41
Harry Wright gave the “eccentric young man from Lowell”42 a new chance in Boston for the 1880 season. Brown broke his trust, however. On April 28 in an exhibition game in Lowell, Brown “drank too much ‘stimulants,’ and then reeled onto the field,”43 reported the Chicago Tribune, a glaring issue that was kept out of the Boston papers. A day later, Brown was suspended for the entire season for drunkenness.44
Seeking a job, Brown went north to play with the Actives of Woodstock, Ontario, where he met pitcher Tip O’Neill. O’Neill was known for a blazing fastball, and no catcher could be found who could handle his pitches. But O’Neill and Brown were a perfect match, as Foley remembered. “No man had ever been found to catch O’Neil [sic] until ‘The Horse’ (Brown) made his appearance; and the ease with which Lew handled ‘the cannon ball pitcher,’ as O’Neil [sic] was called, fairly electrified the natives.” Woodstock won the championship in Canada and Brown and O’Neill “were dined, wined and toasted.”45 The New York Clipper also said Brown played for the Browns of Harriston, Ontario46 and the Meteors of Attleboro47 in addition to the Woodstock team.48
Brown returned to the States and began the 1881 season with the Detroit Wolverines. Brown played 27 games, all at first base. He hit what the Detroit Free Press headlined as “Brown Knocks the Ball Over the Center Field Fence for a Clean Home Run,” in a 1-0 win over Troy on June 9.49 Brown batted .241 with 3 home runs for the Wolverines. All was not well in Detroit, however. More episodes of drunkenness led to the team stockholders unanimously agreeing to release Brown when they discovered that “all his penitential professions were deceitful, and he would have been released long ago were it not for the difficulty of filling his place in the nine,” the Free Press reported. “In this connection it is in order to state that the management have decided to hereafter strictly enforce sobriety, honesty and morality upon the nine.”50 Brown returned to Providence in August, and played in 18 games, five at first base, and 13 in the outfield.51
Brown was blacklisted by the National League for his behavior, and was out of professional baseball in 1882. Loyal fans held a benefit game for him in June. A crowd of 200 turned out, including former Boston players, who weren’t exactly in playing shape. “The errors, if kept,” wrote the Globe, “would have amounted to a large number, and out of respect for many of the gentlemen who played they were not recorded.”52 The New York Clipper also mentions Brown catching for the Toronto club in 1882.53 He also caught a game between bartenders from Boston and Providence54in which boxing champion John L. Sullivan pitched.
Brown returned to Boston in 1883 but played in only 14 games at first base, batting .241 in 54 at-bats. In June, he was released by Boston at his own request55 and signed by Louisville of the American Association, in August. “For the sake of the Louisvilles,” the Courier-Journal wrote, “it is hoped that he will behave himself.”56 Boston went on to win the pennant without Brown, who played 14 games at first base for Louisville, batting a meager .183.
In 1884, Brown wanted to put the past behind him. He focused on fixing his arm troubles, putting himself under the care of a personal physician and worked out in a gymnasium, hoping for a catching job to turn up.57 He didn’t have to look far. Murnane was managing the new Boston club in the newly-formed Union Association, a rival to the National League.
Brown delighted fans in the home opener on April 30 by hitting two doubles in a 15-8 Boston win over the Keystones.58 Brown was later suspended, although the cause, if it was made public, is lost to history. There were plans that he would be released along with Tommy Bond,59 but the acquisition of the curveball-throwing Dupee Shaw from Detroit meant Brown was needed to do what he had always done best: block the ball behind the plate. Brown played in a career-high 85 games of the 111 Boston played, so his suspension was brief.
Shaw was known for his “curves and drops.” His first game for Boston was also Brown’s first game since being reinstated, and Brown “caught Shaw in fine style.”60 On July 19, Shaw pitched a one-hitter, striking out 18, yet lost 1-0 on an error by Brown and a wild pitch.61 Shaw was unlucky again on August 16, when Brown reportedly was sick and Ed Crane had to catch. Crane got one of Shaw’s curves off a finger that was now out of joint and he had to leave. Desperate for catching, Murnane actually recruited someone named Murphy from the crowd, who made “three errors in almost as many minutes” and Boston had to shuffle players around.62 Today, there is a “Murphy” listed in official baseball records who played in this one and only game, and whose identity is still unknown. All because Brown was sick…or his whereabouts unknown.
Shaw pitched a three-hitter with 11 strikeouts against Baltimore on August 18. In a strange game in Kansas City on September 29, both Shaw and Brown failed to appear for the game, so the umpire played left field for Boston.63 The season closed with Shaw shutting out St. Louis 5-0. In Shaw’s half-season with Boston, he went 21-15 with a 1.77 ERA and an unheard of 309 strikeouts, a total of 451 for the entire season. Shaw had been 9-18 with a 3.04 ERA in Detroit. “Too much cannot be said in praise of Shaw, who has amply proved himself to be the best pitcher in the association,” wrote the Boston Herald, and “Brown has handled him in admirable style and has shown that, when in condition, he will yield the palm to no one in the country as a backstop.”64
It was a nice finish to the season, the Union Association, and the career of Lew Brown.
Later in the year, Brown was arrested for larceny of a watch and was held on $2,000 bail. He was later discharged after a protracted trial in which he was found not guilty.65 He was still hoping for a baseball job somewhere, the Clipper noting he himself was looking “hale and hearty. He never caught better than for the puzzling Shaw last season, and is open to offers from any club.”66 But the offers never came; instead he played some exhibitions with the boxer Sullivan around New England.67 Friends attempted to lift his spirits in November by having two picked nines play a benefit game for him on the Union Grounds.68
After his playing days ended, Brown could still be seen from time to time “in some of the open lots along Columbus Avenue, enjoying a game with the boys. He delighted in pitching to them, having an idea they could not pick out a good ball.”69 Brown also got into acting, portraying the wrestler Charles in the Shakespearian play “As You Like It.” The Herald wrote that Brown was “especially engaged to play the part of” Charles in performances at Boston’s Globe Theater in October of 1882.70 Brown performed the part several times over the years.
Brown finally found a team to play for in 1887: the Shoe and Leathers amateur club.71 An old-timers game was held on September 16, 1887, for the benefit of veterans. Brown took his old spot behind the plate with Bond on the mound. Bond, the Clipper remarked, showed some glimpses of his pitching mastery, but Brown “showed his lack of practice, especially at throwing to bases.”72 This was nothing new. A Sporting Life writer surmised that it was only a weak throwing arm that kept Brown from being listed with the great catchers of his day. “You could never tell whether he was going to get the ball down to the bag or not.” But as a backstop, Brown had few equals.73
Brown worked at the Saracen’s Head Hotel,74 a “sporting house” at 22 Lagrange Street in Boston. It was while working there that he suffered a fatal accident. Perhaps showing his wrestling moves from his acting gig, Brown was wrestling with a friend. He fractured his kneecap when he landed on a stone spittoon. He was taken to Boston city hospital, but his fracture led to an amputation which led to pneumonia, and he soon became delirious.75 Lew Brown died on January 15, 1889, in Boston and was buried at Forest Hills Cemetery in the Jamaica Plain section of that city. Pallbearers for the service included several of Brown’s teammates: Harry Schafer, Joe Hornung, Jack Manning, Lon Knight, Mike Slattery, Bond, and Murnane. The only family Brown had present was his widowed mother.
Brown’s career and life were short but not without impact, as the crowd that gathered to say goodbye to the one who delighted in being called “The Hoss”76 would attest.
1 “Hub Happenings,” Sporting Life, January 23, 1889: 4.
2 Tim Murnane, “Lew Brown’s Last Sleep,” Boston Globe, January 19, 1889: 1.
3 “Death of Lewis J. Brown,” Boston Herald, January 17, 1889: 8.
4 See the discussion of the catcher’s mask in Peter Morris’ Game of Inches: The Story Behind the Innovations That Helped Shape Baseball. (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publishers, 2010), 297-299.
5 Morris, Game of Inches, 293.
6 See Peter Morris, Game of Inches, 26-27; 52; 146-147.
7 Murnane,“Lew Brown’s Last Sleep,”
8 “Lew Brown Dead,” Boston Globe, January 17, 1889: 5.
9 Charles J. Foley, “The Stars of Boston,” Boston Globe, May 2, 1887: 8.
10 Peter Morris. Game of Inches: The Story Behind the Innovations That Shaped Baseball. (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2010), 486.
12 “Base Ball,” Lowell Daily Citizen, April 2, 1877: 3.
13 “The Stars of Boston.”
14 “Base Ball,” Lowell Daily Citizen and News (Lowell, Massachusetts), May 15, 1875: 2.
15 “City and Vicinity,” Lowell Daily Citizen and News, June 19, 1875: 2.
16 “Base Ball,” Lowell Daily Citizen and News, September 13, 1875: 2.
17 “Base Ball—Live Oaks and Lowells,” Lowell Daily Citizen and News, October 19, 1875: 2.
18 As noted in the Boston Daily Advertiser May 4, 1876 “Sports and Pastimes” column.
19 “Brown of the Lowells,” Lowell Daily Citizen and News, June 19, 1876: 2.
20 “Changes in the Nine,” Boston Daily Advertiser, June 19, 1876: 4.
21 “Sporting Matters,” Boston Journal, April 17, 1876: 4.
22 “Salaries,” Chicago Tribune, July 16, 1876: 3.
23 “Base Ball. Bostons Vs. Cincinnati,” Cincinnati Dail Gazette, June 21, 1876: 8.
24 “The League. The ‘Champions’ Defeat the Red Stockings 14-7,” Cincinnati Daily Enquirer, June 21, 1876: 8.
25 Story was printed in the July 19, 1876 edition of the Lowell Daily Citizen.
26 “The Bostons Defeat the Athletics,” Boston Daily Advertiser, August 4, 1876: 1.
27 “Harry Wright: The ‘Old Man’ Talks With a Chicago Reporter,” Boston Globe, July 15, 1876: 2.
28 “Scraps and Splinters,” Chicago Tribune, December 3, 1876: 7.
29 “Sporting,” Cincinnati Commercial Tribune, June 29, 1879: 7.
30 “City and Vicinity,” Lowell Daily Citizen and News, January 3, 1878: 2.
31 Printed in the Lowell Daily Citizen and News, January 5, 1878: 2.
32 Tim Murnane. “His the Longest Hit,” Boston Globe, November 26, 1893: 10.
33 “In and Out-Door Sports,” Plain Dealer (Cleveland), September 17, 1878: 4.
34 “Our Special Telegrams,” Boston Herald, February 3, 1889: 4.
35 “Sporting Matters. Base Ball,” Springfield Republican (Springfield, Massachusetts), May 16, 1879: 5.
36 “In and Out Door Sports,” Plain Dealer, July 11, 1879: 1.
37 “Base Ball Notes,” New York Clipper, August 30, 1879: 181.
38 Peter Morris. Catcher: The Evolution of an American Folk Hero. (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publishers, 2010), 217.
39 “Base Ball. Providence 10; Chicago 3,” Boston Journal, September 5, 1879: 4.
40 “General Notes,” Plain Dealer, September 22, 1879: 8.
41 “Local Happenings,” Chicago Tribune, September 28, 1879: 7.
42 “Notes of the Game,” Chicago Tribune, November 16, 1879: 11.
43 “Base-Ball,” Chicago Tribune, May 4, 1880: 5.
44 “Brief Locals,” Boston Journal, April 30, 1880: 2.
45 Charley Foley, “Players With a Record,” Boston Globe, October 17, 1887: 8; Peter Morris. Catcher: The Evolution of an American Folk Hero. (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2010), 133-134.
46 “The Browns of Harriston, Ont,” New York Clipper, June 25, 1881: 220.
47 “Base Ball Notes,” New York Clipper, May 29, 1880: 75.
48 “Base Ball Notes,” New York Clipper, September 25, 1880: 210.
49 “Sporting Matters,” Detroit Free Press, June 10, 1881: 8.
50 “Sporting Matters. How the Management Looks Upon the Release of Brown,” Detroit Free Press, June 18, 1881: 1.
51 “Fair Balls,” Detroit Free Press, August 18, 1881: 1.
52 “Lew Brown’s Benefit,” Boston Globe, June 27, 1882: 1.
53 New York Clipper, August 19, 1882: 346.
54 “What a Trio!” Cleveland Leader, July 28, 1882: 5.
55 New York Clipper, June 23, 1883: 218.
56 “Louisville’s New Catcher,” Courier-Journal (Louisville, Kentucky), August 21, 1883: 6.
57 Boston Herald, March 2, 1884: 10.
58 “New Grounds Opened,” Boston Globe, May 1, 1884: 3.
59 “Around the Bases,” Boston Herald, July 6, 1884: 2.
60 “Boston Union 8; St. Louis Union 1,” Boston Daily Advertiser, July 17, 1884: 8.
61 “St. Louis Unions 1; Boston Unions 0,” Boston Globe, July 20, 1884: 8.
62 “The Unions,” Boston Herald, August 17, 1884: 2.
63 “Queer Doings at Kansas City. Shaw and Brown Fail to Appear, and our Unions are Defeated in a Farcical Game,” Boston Journal, September 30, 1884: 4.
64 “Base Ball,” Boston Herald, October 22, 1884: 1.
65 “Baseball,” New York Clipper, January 3, 1885: 669; “‘Lew’ Brown Acquitted,” Boston Globe, December 20, 1884: 6.
66 “From the Hub,” New York Clipper, February 21, 1885: 778.
67 “General Sporting Notes,” Boston Herald, May 10, 1885: 2.
68 “From the Hub,” New York Clipper, November 7, 1885: 538.
69 Murnane,“Lew Brown’s Last Sleep.”
70 “Notes,” Boston Herald, October 15, 1882: 3; New York Clipper also mentions this in the October 21, 1882 issue, page 507.
71 “National Game Notes,” Sporting Life, June 16, 1887: 5.
72 “Baseball,” New York Clipper, September 24, 1887: 443.
73 “Hub Happenings.”
74 As noted in Boston City Directories in the 1880’s. The hotel was owned by the widow of heavyweight champion Joe Goss.
75 “Baseball,” New York Clipper, January 26, 1889: 737; “Lew Brown Dead.”
76 Murnane,“Lew Brown’s Last Sleep.”