Edgar Martinez

This article was written by Emily Hawks

When many reflect on the 1990s Mariners, often the flashier stars jump to mind: Ken Griffey Jr., Randy Johnson, Alex Rodriguez. However, few on those teams would disagree that the stalwart of the Mariners was a player who toiled just outside of the spotlight. Known as Gar, El Papa, or Papi, Edgar Martinez was the quiet, hard-working hitting machine who was the heart of the Mariners. Chants of “Eeeed-gaaaar” reverberated throughout the Kingdome during every Martinez at-bat, and Martinez’s name became synonymous with the designated hitter position at which he excelled. A Mariner for his entire career, his legacy is strongly felt in Seattle even to this day.

Edgar Martinez was born on January 2, 1963 in New York City to parents Jose Martinez and Christina Salgado Martinez.1 When he was two years old, his parents divorced, and Martinez went to live with his grandparents, Mario Salgado and Manuela Rivera, in the Maguayo neighborhood of Dorado, Puerto Rico.

At eight years old, he watched the Pittsburgh Pirates win the 1971 World Series on television, led by Puerto Rican great Roberto Clemente. “After that series, I went outside my house and I started playing in the backyard,” said Martinez. “I was hooked on baseball after that.”2 Martinez’s parents reconciled three years later and summoned their three children back to New York. Though his brother and sister returned to his parents, Martinez opted to remain with his grandparents in Puerto Rico. “He locked himself in his room and wouldn’t come out, didn’t want to leave,” said Martinez’s uncle, Jose Juan Rivera. “I felt my grandparents needed me,” Martinez explained. “I went with my feelings.”3

Martinez grew up playing baseball with his cousin and future big leaguer Carmelo Martinez. Carmelo was two years older, and they would often pitch to each other between games, throwing anything they could find: balls, rocks, even bottle caps. “Bottle caps were great training for hitting breaking balls, they curved so much,” Carmelo recalled. “I’d go out with a broomstick and hit the rocks all over, try for open space,” Edgar remembered. “I never broke windows or anything but the neighbors did complain.” 4

After graduating from Jose S. Alegria High School in Dorado, Martinez went on to attend American College in Puerto Rico, while also working the night shift in a pharmaceutical factory and playing semipro baseball. When Edgar was 20, Mariners scout Marty Martinez (no relation) held a tryout camp in Dorado. Though he had heard of Edgar’s hitting abilities, he’d also heard that he lacked speed and power. Still, this did not deter him. “I never did listen much to other scouts,” he said. “I had my own ideas on things.” Edgar completed his tryout after working an eight hour night shift at the factory. His performance was enough to garner him a $4,000 offer to sign with the Mariners, yet he still required a little prodding from his cousin, Carmelo. “He was the one who kept saying ‘take the chance, you can make it,’” Edgar said. “I did not know. Finally, I decided to try it. But Carmelo . . . he kind of made the decision for me.” 5

Martinez began his professional career with the Bellingham Mariners of the Northwest League. He started slowly, batting just .173 in 1983. But he was also contending with the culture shock of playing in the far northwest corner of the contiguous United States, bordering Canada. “When I got to Bellingham, I could only speak a few words of English, just enough to order in a restaurant,” Martinez recalled. “And I couldn’t believe people could live in such cold weather.”6

He improved the following year with the Wausau Timbers of the Midwest League, hitting .303 and drawing 84 walks. Martinez split the 1985 season between the AA Chattanooga Lookouts of the Southern League, where he hit .258 in 111 games, and the AAA Calgary Cannons of the Pacific Coast League, .353 in 20 games. Back in Chattanooga in 1986, he led the league third basemen with a .960 fielding percentage.

Martinez began the 1987 season in Calgary, where he batted .327 through 129 games, including 31 doubles and 10 home runs. After this strong performance, the Mariners called him up, and he made his big league debut on September 12. He quickly became acclimated to big league pitching, compiling a .372 average in the season’s final 13 games. Martinez certainly enjoyed the change in lifestyle. “To me, everything is first class. We stay at the best hotels, we don’t have to carry our luggage and you make better money in the big leagues,” he observed shortly after his call-up. He aimed to make the best impression possible and was willing to do whatever was required of him to stay in the majors. “I think I can play utility, third, second, wherever they want to play me I try to do it.” 7

In 1988, Martinez joined the Mariners for spring training in Arizona, but was trimmed from the major league roster on March 22 and once again began the season in Calgary. His season began with a rough start. During a game in Tempe, a ground ball took a bad hop, struck him in the face, and broke his nose. The injury sidelined him for a few games, but he recovered splendidly, winning the 1988 Pacific Coast League batting title with a .363 average. He also performed creditably with the big league club in limited service in September. Shortly after the season’s conclusion, Martinez underwent a patellar scraping and debridement procedure on his left knee, which had been causing him discomfort throughout the season.8

In 1989, Martinez began the season with the big league club in Seattle. Joining him in the Opening Day lineup were fellow rookies Ken Griffey, Jr. and Omar Vizquel. Martinez struggled early on and again split his time between Seattle and Calgary. The consistent playing time in the minors lifted him out of his rut. “When I was sent down I played every day and I found my rhythm,” Martinez said. “[I] was more comfortable and secure with myself.”9 Unlike many players who became discouraged by living in constant flux between the major and minor leagues, Martinez embraced his situation. “I saw other players who were very frustrated by playing in the minor leagues, but I was lucky,” said Martinez. “I never got frustrated. I was doing what I really liked. I was just happy to be playing the game.”10 Cumulatively, he hit .345 in 32 games at Calgary, and .240 in 65 games with Seattle.

Following the 1989 season, Martinez returned to his native Puerto Rico to play winter ball. He won the Puerto Rican League batting title, hitting .424 through 43 games at San Juan and shared MVP honors with Carlos Baerga.11

On his return, Martinez agreed to a one-year, $90,000 deal with the Mariners, though the M’s third base job in 1990 apparently belonged to Darnell Coles. But after a stretch in which Coles committed five errors in six games, manager Jim Lefebvre moved him to the outfield, clearing the way for Martinez to take over at third. Which itself wasn’t without incident: Lefebvre stuck with Martinez even after a horrendous game on May 6 when Martinez tied the American League record of committing four errors in a single game.12 Lefebvre knew what he was doing. Martinez had become the reliable source of offensive production the team had been looking for, hitting .302 on the season, with an OPS of .830 in his first season as a “full timer.” Many were also noticing his strong work ethic, including the Mariners’ strength and conditioning coach and former Olympic shot putter Pete Shmock. “He has the kind of discipline I wish all baseball players had,” Shmock said. “I’m proud of him, and he should be proud of himself.”13 Despite Martinez’s excellent season, most media and fan attention was lavished on teammate Griffey, Jr., who had both flare and flashier power numbers. This didn’t bother the humble Martinez. When asked about the disparity in the amount of publicity each player received, Martinez commented, “It’s simple. Junior is one of the greatest players. He deserves the attention.”14 Martinez had played much of the season through knee pain, and immediately after the conclusion of the season, underwent arthroscopic surgery on his right knee to repair a torn ligament.15

Before the 1991 season, Martinez signed a two-year contract for $850,000 plus incentives.16 He began the season on an offensive tear, hitting .412 through the month of April. Manager Lefebvre experimented with putting Edgar at nearly all spots in the lineup, including 67 games in the leadoff position later in the season. His strongest performance came in the cleanup spot, where he hit .380 in 71 at bats. He finished the season again hitting over .300 with an overall WAR of 6.1.

By 1992, Martinez began to get noticed in the baseball world at large. Offensively he seemed to be getting increasingly better, even in spite of a right shoulder injury that was causing a great deal of pain. He was selected to his first American League All-Star squad, going into the break hitting .328 with 14 home runs and 26 doubles. “Since I was a kid, playing in the All-Star Game was a dream,” Martinez said. “I feel great to be selected. It is an honor.”17 The following month, the Mariners signed Martinez to a three-year, $10 million contract—the most lucrative in franchise history to that point.18 Amidst the batting race in late August, Martinez realized he had finally been recognized as a competitor when a shipment of bats he ordered from Rawlings arrived, and every one of the dozen was in pristine condition, with the perfect cut of wood.19

As Mariners beat writer Bob Finnigan noted, “Over the years it was a common sight to see him sitting at his locker doing his daily eye exercises or pulling out his little kitchen scale, checking every bat of a new shipment, carefully writing the weight in ounces on the knob, and occasionally shaking his head over discrepancies.”20 To the ever meticulous Martinez, those precise scale figures were a sign he’d made it big. However the pain in his shoulder cut his season short: it began impeding his play. “Most of the season it just hurt me to throw,” Martinez said. “But lately it has bothered me swinging the bat.”21 He underwent arthroscopic surgery to remove bone spurs in his right shoulder on September 19. Martinez’s .343 BA easily won the AL batting title, and indeed led the entire majors. He also tied Frank Thomas for the most doubles in baseball with 46, and won his first Silver Slugger award. The following offseason brought a mixture of joy and sorrow for Martinez. In October, he married Holli Beeler, a Seattle-area native and Seattle Pacific University student. The two met on a blind date after being set up by a mutual friend.22 Soon afterward, however, he faced adversity in his personal life. “Shortly after [I got married], my grandfather passed away. I got the flu for a long time. My grandmother had a stroke,” Martinez recollected.23

In January of 1993 the Mariners signed Edgar’s cousin Carmelo to a minor league deal and invited him to spring training camp. By that time, Carmelo had played nine seasons in the majors and had long been soliciting hitting advice from his younger cousin. “That was a strange feeling when Carmelo started to ask me for help. My cousin was my hero when I was a little kid,” Edgar said. “He is the one who taught me to hit and is still the only batting coach I’ve ever had.”24

Just before the 1993 season began, Martinez suffered a freak mishap in an exhibition game that would ultimately change the entire trajectory of his career. Four teams were set to play in the ‘Baseball Classic’ at BC Place Stadium in Vancouver, British Columbia, as part of a preseason exhibition. The Mariners opened the series in a game against the Milwaukee Brewers on April 3. The venue had hosted a Guns ‘N Roses concert earlier in the week, so the field’s turf and dirt had been hastily installed. The dirt used to fill the cutouts surrounding the bases was loose and sandy, and it contained no clay for the players to gain grip with their cleats. “It was like playing in a sandbox, like playing on a beach,” said manager Lou Piniella.25 When Martinez stole a base in the fourth inning, he heard a pop in his leg. He hit the ground and lay there for two minutes until helped off the field by the trainers. Team doctor Larry Pedegana later diagnosed Martinez with a partial muscle tear above the left knee. Martinez would play only 42 games that season, with dismal numbers across the board (.237/.366/.378). It was by far his worst regular season. The event profoundly shaped Martinez’s approach to the game in the future. After the obstacles he endured in his personal life the preceding offseason, Martinez recounted, “From the time I came to spring training I was behind and I felt I got hurt because I wasn’t in good enough shape. After that I decided I would never let that happen again.”26

The bad luck continued early in the 1994 season, however, as Martinez was hit by a pitch on Opening Day while facing Cleveland right-hander Dennis Martinez. “I thought, ‘Not again,’” Martinez said. “I couldn’t believe it was my first game.”27 Returning to play nearly a week later, he made three errors in a game. After a stint on the disabled list, Martinez went on to appear in 89 games of the strike-shortened season. He played 65 games at third base, 23 as designated hitter, and appeared once as a pinch runner.

Martinez roared back into form in 1995. Playing nearly all games as a designated hitter, he had the best season of his career leading the American League in runs (121) and batting average (.356), he led the major leagues in doubles (52), on-base percentage (.479), and OPS (1.107). He also earned an impressive offensive WAR of 7.2 He was selected to his second American League All-Star squad, won a second Silver Slugger, and finished third in MVP voting. Martinez gave the Mariners a much-needed boost after star player Griffey, Jr. went on the disabled list on May 26. Twenty-five of his 29 home runs, and 97 of his 113 RBI came after Griffey’s injury.28 Due in no small part to Edgar’s achievements, the Mariners went on to win their first-ever AL West division championship.

In their playoff debut, the Mariners faced the Wild Card Yankees in the ALDS. Martinez swung a hot bat for the entire series, getting three hits in each of the first two games, for example, although the Mariners lost both contests. The M’s battled back to win Game Three, in which Martinez buoyed the team with a grand slam home run. And they also captured Game Four, with Edgar contributing a three-run dinger in that victory.

With the series back in Seattle for the decisive fifth game, 57,411 frenzied fans packed into the Kingdome. The Yankees sent Game One victor David Cone to the mound, who held the Mariners in check through seven innings. But in the eighth, down 4-2, the Mariners tacked on a run, and then added another in the ninth, sending the game into extra innings. After a dramatic relief appearance by Mariners’ ace Randy Johnson in the top of the ninth, the Yankees countered with former Cy Young winner Jack McDowell in the bottom half of the inning. Johnson gave up a run in the top of the 11th, and the Mariners went into the bottom half of the inning trailing 5-4. With everything on the line, Joey Cora and Griffey singled and Martinez came to the plate with runners on first and third. Having fanned against McDowell in the 9th, Edgar was out for revenge. Reliever Norm Charlton recalled their encounter in the dugout, “I told him, ‘You’re going to get another chance.’ He looked at me with the look in his eye that said, ‘I know.’”29

Edgar did not waste his chance. On an 0-1 count, he laced a split-fingered fastball into the left-field corner. Cora scored easily, while Griffey kicked into overdrive from first. As the entire team waved him in along with third base coach Sam Perlozzo, Junior slid safely into home, securing the Mariners their first Division Championship and sending the Kingdome into an eruption. Martinez had a monstrous series: hitting an electric .571, with two homers and 10 RBIs. “A professional is the best description I can use for him,” Piniella said. It’s the highest praise I can think of for a major-league baseball player.” Griffey added, “People are always asking about Edgar. What can you say? He’s just Edgar. The man can hit.”30 Though the Mariners went on to lose the ALCS to Cleveland, the dramatic Game Five ALDS victory has not been forgotten. Even today, 20 years later, ”The Double” is permanently etched in collective memory and franchise lore. It’s depicted in a Safeco Field mural and was constantly re-lived for 15 years through the baritone voice of the late Ford C. Frick award-winning Mariners broadcaster Dave Niehaus.

Martinez, now being used almost exclusively as a DH, put up another solid All-Star year in 1996, hitting .327 In an unfortunate ironic twist, the only game he played at third base that season resulted in four cracked ribs and 21 games on the DL after a collision with catcher John Marzano.31

Adding a fourth All-Star appearance to his resume in 1997, and a third Silver Slugger to his trophy case, Martinez helped bring his team back to the playoffs, though they fell to the Orioles in four games in the ALDS. At the time, with ownership interests in limbo, great uncertainty surrounded the future of the Mariners. “It looks to me like they want to change leagues,” Martinez said after the season, a matter of some moment to a man who made his living as a superb DH. “Right now I have no clue if they want to keep me or if they want to trade me. I’d rather stay, but it’s not up to me.”32

Fortunately, the Mariners remained in the AL where Martinez continued to produce. Over the next two years he batted .327 and .330 and led the AL in OBP, something he accomplished three times in his career. Indeed, he excelled at getting on base: for two-thirds of his 18-year career, he earned an OBP over .400.

Near the end of the decade, eye problems connected to strabismus, a lifelong condition for Martinez, began bothering him. Strabismus affects eye coordination, and Martinez’s right eye would wander, causing him to lose focus. He was first diagnosed with the condition in the minor leagues, but the problem tends to worsen with age. In 1999, Martinez began losing sight of pitches and seemed headed for the DL. He even confided in some people that he might have to retire. Early in his career, Martinez began incorporating 30 minutes of eye exercises into his pregame routine. When the trouble worsened, he invited team optometrist Douglas Nikaitani to his house for extra homework. The doc put charts on the walls and told Edgar to fuse them together while simultaneously batting tennis balls away. He added martial arts and math problems to the exercise, trying to push Martinez to his limits. These strange ministrations seemed to work. “I felt different,” Martinez said. “I could see the ball more. I was able to pick up the rotation . . . I felt I was improving, back to where I wanted to be again.”33

In 2000 he led the AL in RBI (145), was selected to his fifth All-Star team, had a career-best 37 home runs, and finished sixth in MVP voting. He also hit .364 in the ALDS as the Mariners swept the White Sox, but they ultimately fell to the Yankees in the ALCS.

2001 was a magical year for the Mariners: the team tied the 1906 Cubs’ record of 116 wins in a season. Martinez was one of eight Mariners selected to that year’s All Star Game, which took place on their home field. In the Division Series against the Indians, Martinez hit .313, but only .150 in their Championship Series loss to the Yankees. It would be his final playoff appearance.

A ruptured hamstring tendon behind his left knee shortened Martinez’s 2002 season and he again underwent surgery in April. Whether Martinez, then approaching 40, would play another year was questionable. But the Mariners weren’t quite ready to let the heart-and-soul of their team go, and signed him to a one-year deal. “We just had to get it done,” said the M’s CEO Howard Lincoln.34 Martinez rewarded the franchise’s confidence, rebounding from his injury in 2003, hitting .294 with 24 home runs, .403 OBP and a strong 3.3 WAR. Buoyed by his season, Martinez signed another one-year deal with the Mariners in November.

But around mid-August of the following year, with his team buried in the AL West cellar 29 games below .500, and Martinez hitting only .258, he decided to retire at season’s end. His body was worn out and would no longer allow him to compete at his accustomed level. Unlike many stars he played with over the years—Griffey, Jr., Johnson, and Rodriguez, to name a few—Martinez played for Seattle his entire career. Though he was sometimes a quiet presence, especially when contrasted with big personalities like Griffey, Jr. and Jay Buhner, Martinez still knew how to have a laugh. He featured prominently in the always popular Mariners commercial campaigns over the years. Fan favorites included a commercial in which he taught other young Latino players to say “geoduck” (a clam which is a Pacific Northwest delicacy), another where he had a garage-door opener in his car that controlled the Safeco Field roof, and the legendary “light bat” commercial where he constructed a lamp out of a bat. “I never got the bat lamp,” Martinez recalled, feigning sadness.35 Still, what most fans and teammates remember was his unwavering work ethic. Mariners Vice President of Communications Randy Adamack remembered, “I can recall two years I came to the office the day before Christmas. The parking lot was empty except for one other car, Edgar’s.”36

It’s little mystery why the city of Seattle renamed the street adjacent to Safeco Field “Edgar Martinez Drive.” In fact, the city did not even wait for his retirement to do so, making the switch on “Edgar Martinez Day” at Safeco Field, the last day of his playing career. “Why wait?” said Seattle mayor, Greg Nickels. “He’s been a part of Seattle for so long, and his contribution has been unlike any other pro athlete, we thought it would be a great idea.”37 Commissioner Bud Selig—on hand that weekend to commemorate Ichiro Suzuki’s breaking George Sisler’s single-season hits record—called Martinez a role model for the game and announced that the annual Designated Hitter Award would forever be known as the Edgar Martinez Award. Teammate Bret Boone characterized him as “the greatest Mariner of all time.”38

That point is scarcely arguable. He appears on the team leader boards in virtually every offensive category, leading in games played, on-base percentage, extra-base hits, doubles, RBI, walks, runs, and total bases, and finishing second in OPS, overall WAR, batting average, hits, and home runs. Shortly after the season concluded, Martinez became the first Puerto Rican to be awarded the Roberto Clemente Award for his charitable work in the Seattle community. It was a fitting award for Martinez, who became interested in baseball largely because of Clemente. “Clemente was my idol as a child,” he said, “and to get this award is very special to me.”39

Though he retired from playing baseball, the always hard-working Martinez could not remain idle during his retirement. In addition to spending more time with his family—by then, he and wife Holli had three children: a son, Alex, and daughters, Tessa and Jacqueline—Martinez also launched a promotional merchandise agency called Branded Solutions. When asked why he didn’t just retire to a life of leisure, spending his post-playing days on the golf course, Martinez said, “I tried that. But I felt the need to be productive. I feel energetic. I feel young. I wanted to do something.”40 Martinez and his wife also founded The Martinez Foundation, a charitable organization that provides scholarships and support programs to students of color who are pursuing teaching careers.

Martinez had always said that he might be interested in a return to the baseball world, but he wanted to wait until his children were older. “In 2005, on opening day, I had a baby in my arms watching the game,” Martinez recalled ten years later. “Now it’s the right time. I really missed the game over all those years.” 41 On June 20, 2015, the Mariners named Martinez as their new hitting coach. “For the last three years, I’ve wanted to get back into the game, obviously I wanted to do it with the Mariners,” Martinez said. “I haven’t seen so much talent on the Mariners for a long time . . . I think it’s a great opportunity for me.”42

While Martinez has certainly had a significant impact on the game, his Hall of Fame candidacy has been a hotly debated topic ever since his retirement. Martinez debuted on the ballot in 2010, receiving 36 percent of the vote. His tally held fairly steady for four years, but dropped a bit in 2014 and 2015 to about 25 percent. Many believe Martinez’s late start to his career, coupled with the fact that he played primarily as a designated hitter, have held him back. One of the biggest supporters of Martinez’s HOF candidacy is former teammate Randy Johnson, who was inducted in 2015. “The first person on my ballot who would get my vote is Edgar,” said Johnson. “I’ve faced a lot of Hall of Fame hitters, and . . . Edgar is the best hitter that I ever saw.”43

For fans in Seattle, Martinez will long be remembered as the heart of their team. While he was a superbly talented hitter who worked hard at his craft, his most important attribute may well be the quality of his character. He is perhaps best described by the late Dave Niehaus: “I've never heard anybody in any walk of life say anything ever halfway bad about Edgar Martinez. I've never heard a cross word from him. He has always had nice things to say about everyone, even in trying circumstances. He's a great human being.”44

Last revised: November 23, 2015

 

This biography is included in "Puerto Rico and Baseball: 60 Biographies" (SABR, 2017), edited by Bill Nowlin and Edwin Fernández.

 

Notes 

1 David L. Porter, Latino and African American Athletes Today: A Biographical Dictionary, (Santa Barbara: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004), 253.

2 Ian C. Friedman, Latino Athletes, (New York: Infobase Publishing, 2007), 133.

3 Larry Stone, “Martinez is still the talk of his town,” Seattle Times, October 4, 2004.

4 Bob Finnigan, “Double Play—Cousin Carmelo Talked Edgar Martinez into Taking a Chance, Signing with M’s,” Seattle Times, March 7, 1993.

5 Porter, Biographical Dictionary, 253; ibid.

6 Blaine Newnham, “Mister Muscle—Martinez Gives M’s a Lift,” Seattle Times, May 24, 1990.

7 Bob Sherwin, “Martinez, Diaz Help Save M’s Moore from Embarrassment,” Seattle Times, October 2, 1987.

8 Ibid., “Christensen Reassigned; 6 Others Get Ax,” March 22, 1988; Bob Finnigan, “Parker’s Bleeders Killed Mariners,” Seattle Times, April 5, 1988; email, Rick Griffin to author, October 27, 2015, in author’s possession. Griffin is the M’s senior director of athletic training.

9 Bob Sherwin, “Majors Top Minors for M’s—Martinez, Briley Show They Plan to Stay in Win Over Blue Jays,” Seattle Times, June 19, 1989.

10 Newnham, “Mister Muscle.”

11 Bob Finnigan, “Reynolds Looks Like a Million; Presley Looks Like a Red Sock,” Seattle Times, January 14, 1990.

12 Jim Cour, “Mistakes Don’t Rattle Martinez—M’s Third Baseman Swings Hot Bat,” Seattle Times, May 20, 1990.

13 Newnham, “Mister Muscle.”

14 Ibid.

15 Bob Sherwin, “M’s Finish Season with 7-4 Loss—Seattle 1 Victory Short of Matching Best-Ever Season,” Seattle Times, October 3, 1990.

16 Bob Finnigan, “Valle Overcomes Contract Dispute to Report on Time,” Seattle Times, February 23, 1991.

17 Bob Sherwin, “Edgar—All-Star Dream Comes True for Sore-Shouldered Martinez,” Seattle Times, July 10, 1992.

18 Ibid., “M’s Invest in Future—Martinez Signs for Hot Numbers: 3 Years, $10M,” Seattle Times, August 14, 1992.

19 Bob Finnigan, “Make Way for Martinez—League’s Top Hitter Finally Gets Noticed Outside Seattle,” Seattle Times, August 25, 1992.

20 Bob Finnigan, “Edgar was a one-man hit parade – injuries sapped his legs but couldn’t derail him,” Seattle Times, October 4, 2004.

21 Ibid., “Edgar’s Season May Be Finished—Shoulder Surgery Possible for Martinez,” September 16, 1992.

22 Connie McDougall, “Rooting for the Home Team,” Response, Winter 1997.

23 Finnigan, “Edgar was a one-man hit parade.”

24 Ibid., “Double Play.”

25 Ibid., “M’s Lose Edgar for Up to 6 Weeks— Martinez Sidelined After B.C. Mishap,” April 4, 1993.

26 Ibid., “Edgar was a one-man hit parade.”

27 Bob Sherwin, “Mariner Log – Edgar Gets a Scare in First Trip to Plate,” Seattle Times, April 5, 1994.

28 Ibid., “Martinez Gets Summertime Due – Finishes 3rd in MVP Vote After Lifting Griffey-Less M’s,” November 17, 1995.

29 Bob Finnigan, “Miracle Mariners – Pair of Aces, Edgar’s Clutch Hit Ends Series for the Ages in 11th,” Seattle Times, October 9, 1995.

30 “What They’re Saying About Edgar,” Seattle Times, October 9, 1995.

31 “Mariners ’96: A Look Back,” Seattle Times, September 30, 1996.

32 Glenn Nelson, “Martinez Uncertain About Future—Wants to Stay, But Has No Say,” Seattle Times, October 6, 1997.

33 Ken Rosenthal, “Martinez Keeps Hits Coming Despite an Eye Disorder,” Sporting News, May 6, 2001.

34 Bob Finnigan, “Back in the Fold – Martinez Agrees to One-Year Deal with Mariners,” Seattle Times, November 8, 2002.

35 Ibid., “Edgar was a one-man hit parade.”

36 Ibid.

37 Art Thiel, “Seattle to Rename Street After Edgar Martinez,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, September 30, 2004.

38 Bob Finnigan, “A tip of the cap – Rangers 10, M’s 4 | Seattle Honors Retiring DH with a Moving Tribute | Edgar Martinez Day”, Seattle Times, October 3, 2004.

39 Steve Kelley, “Martinez Receives Clemente Award – ‘It Means a Lot’,” Seattle Times, October 27, 2004.

40 Greg Johns, “Edgar’s Life After Baseball,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, February 16, 2007.

41 Ryan Divish, “Mariners hire Edgar as New Hitting Coach,” Seattle Times, June 21, 2015.

42 Ibid.

44 Steve Kelley, “Loud Bat Belied the Quiet Pro Behind It,” Seattle Times, October 4, 2004.