Player, coach, manager, scout – such was the lot of a baseball lifer in the first half of the twentieth century. Dutch Zwilling, with more than 60 years in baseball, filled all of those roles and many more. From the early days of the nascent American League to the cusp of free agency, Zwilling was a participant in and firsthand witness to a significant chunk of baseball history. An accomplished baseball teacher, Dutch also found time to work with amateur leagues in Kansas City and St. Joseph, Missouri. He was a much-sought-after motivational speaker and raconteur. From high-school award dinners to galas with 400 people where he shared the podium with Phog Allen, Zwilling was always ready to share a story or offer the benefit of his considerable baseball wisdom.1 When he died in 1978, he could look back on many personal accomplishments but, we assume, he took greater satisfaction in the positive impact he had on thousands of lives.
Edward Harrison Zwilling, the second child of Louisa Katherine Hoch and Henry Zwilling, was born in St. Louis on Friday, November 2, 1888, four days before Benjamin Harrison carried enough states to hold off incumbent Grover Cleveland. Missouri gave its 16 electoral votes to Cleveland but Henry was a Republican,2 naming his second son after the GOP nominee. The elder Zwilling was born in St. Louis, but his family were ethnic Germans from the oft-disputed Alsace-Lorraine region. Louisa was also born in Missouri, a first-generation American whose parents had immigrated from Germany.3
We do not know much about Edward’s early life or where he learned baseball. If the 1940 census is accurate, he finished school after the eighth grade.4 Zwilling first appears in the sports section in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch in April 1909, where he is listed as the center fielder on the “All Professionals.”5 Shortly thereafter, Zwilling started his professional career with Bay City in the Class-D Southern Michigan League. Later in the ’09 season he transferred to the cellar-destined Battle Creek Crickets. Overall, he hit .278 in nearly 400 at-bats.6
He was back at Battle Creek for the 1910 season and improved dramatically over 1909. Zwilling was impressive enough for the light-hitting Chicago White Sox to notice. The left-hand-throwing, left-hand-hitting center fielder was batting .326 after 77 games with the Crickets when his contract was sold to Chicago on July 21.7 Zwilling made his major-league debut on August 14 in Chicago, starting in center field in game one of a doubleheader against the New York Highlanders. Batting sixth, he was hitless in three at-bats but did manage a walk. He started the second game as well, getting his first major-league hit, a double off Ray Fisher. For the next month or so, Zwilling started most of the White Sox games in center field. After he went 2-for-4 against the Athletics’ Jack Coombs and got his batting average up to .294, Zwilling’s average started a slow, steady descent. He was benched after going hitless on September 11, his average a paltry .183. While he could not produce runs with his bat, he was able to save runs with his glove. Ring Lardner, who often referred to Zwilling as “Little Aleck” – presumably for his stature (5-feet-6), his cherubic face, and his carefree attitude (one scribe called him “a happy-go-lucky boy … who was having a lot of fun and playing ball between times.”8) – praised Zwilling’s fielding. “Little Aleck Zwilling was intent on saving [White Sox pitcher Irv] Young with manifold great catches. … Little Aleck Zwilling cheated Briscoe [sic] Lord and Jack Barry and helped Young with really great catches of difficult line drives.”9
Chicago found itself with more outfielders than it needed and, in November 1910, sold Zwilling’s contract to the St. Joseph (Missouri) Drummers in the eight-team Class-A Western League.10 The Drummers and Zwilling collectively had a great year in 1911, with the team winning 93 of 165 games, good enough for second place behind the Denver Grizzlies, winners of 111 games. Zwilling hit .341, second best in the Western League, just .002 behind the league leader.11 The Drummers and Zwilling duplicated their 1911 seasons in 1912, with the team in second place again and Dutch, as he was now being called, hitting .341, this time with 207 hits. He spent 1913 in St. Joseph as well, tailing off a bit, hitting .304 in 169 games for the third-place Drummers. It was not all baseball all the time for Dutch in St. Joe. He found time for love and on July 30, 1913, he and Eva Fern Carper were married.12
Zwilling’s contract was sold to the Boston Braves in August 1913 for the 1914 season but he never reported, taking his chances instead with the Chicago franchise of the new Federal League.13 Zwilling had a great season, hitting a team-leading .313 in 154 games with 16 homers, 38 doubles, 8 triples, and 95 RBIs. He started every game he played and played every game in center field, with 14 errors and 15 assists in 369 chances. Dutch was an offensive star of the FL, leading the league in home runs and finishing in the top 10 in many offensive categories. The Chi-Feds came in second in the league’s inaugural season at 87-67, 1½ games behind the pennant-winning Indianapolis Hoosiers.
Dutch’s batting average slipped a bit in 1915 (.286) but he still was a star, coming in second in home runs (13) and doubles (32), while leading the league in RBIs with 94. A good fielder in 1914, Zwilling was better in ’15, with six double plays, a .979 fielding percentage, and leading all center fielders with 356 putouts. “Where does ‘Dutch’ Zwilling get the force behind his bat that enables the Whale center fielder to bag so many home runs? … He is probably the most feared hitter in the Federal league. … One feature about Zwilling’s hard hitting is the fact that he is just as effective against left-handed pitchers as against right. … Zwilling is also a wonderful fielder, being able to cover a lot of ground.”14 The Whales, as the Chi-Feds were known in their sophomore season, won the pennant, just .001 ahead of the St. Louis Terriers. On July 25 the Zwillings celebrated the birth of their only child, a son they named Robert Edward. “Mrs. Edward Harrison Zwilling presented Ed with a baby of the male gender, who tipped the scales at nine and one-quarter pounds in his first try,” the Chicago Tribune wrote. “Zwilling senior says the newcomer is left handed, but has no other apparent defects.”15
After the demise of the Federal League, Zwilling’s contract was among 11 purchased by the Cubs on February 10, 1916. Included in the group of new Cubs players was infielder Rollie Zeider, Zwilling’s teammate with the White Sox in 1910. Zeider and Zwilling are the only two players who played for three major-league baseball franchises in Chicago.
Dutch could not replicate his FL success in the NL. It did not help that the Cubs had, in Cy Williams, one of the league’s best center fielders. Even so, manager Joe Tinker, who had managed Zwilling for two years in the FL, was comfortable, so he said, with “Max Flack or Little Aleck Zwilling, both of whom are left handed hitters, [and] more to be desired for all around baseball ability than is Williams.”16 Perhaps the veteran Tinker was trying to motivate Williams; if so, it worked. Williams was not traded and went on to lead the National League in home runs and all NL center fielders in fielding percentage.17 Three Whales alumni competed for the other two outfield spots and Zwilling was the odd man out. He struggled to find playing time, being used exclusively as a pinch-hitter until his first start, on June 6. Dutch played his last major-league game on July 12, pinch-hitting in a loss to the Phillies. Overall, he hit a mere .113 (6-for-53) with a double and homer. The Cubs traded Zwilling to the Indianapolis Indians of the Double-A American Association, who were in the midst of a pennant race. Zwilling debuted with the Indians on July 20 in Milwaukee, batting fourth against the Brewers. He was “expected to do big things in the Association.”18 Indianapolis eventually finished second to the Louisville Colonels. Zwilling got into 80 games with the Indians, hitting .244 with 2 homers.
Dutch was back with Indianapolis for a full season in 1917, playing in 102 games and hitting .264 with 5 home runs, 5 triples, and 13 doubles. With the United States at war and sending soldiers to France, a local draft board could wreak havoc with rosters. In August Zwilling was listed among several players from the Indians who were “likely to go.”19 Nevertheless, he finished the season with the pennant-winning Indians and went on to play the International League champion Toronto Maple Leafs in the Little World Series. Zwilling had five hits and scored four runs in the opener, a game the Indians won 8-2.20 Dutch had a great series and was 7-for-14 with six runs scored after three games.21 Indianapolis prevailed, four games to one, becoming “Minor League World’s Champions.”22
The 1918 baseball season was played with much uncertainty until July 19, when Secretary of War Newton D. Baker declared baseball nonessential and therefore applied the “Work or Fight Rule” to the national game. Players of draft age had to find work in an essential industry or be inducted into the Army.23 American Association team owners began preparing immediately, meeting in Chicago on the 20th to determine the fate of the ’18 season. They decided unanimously to suspend the season after close of play on July 21.24 Dutch played in 78 games in the shortened season, hitting .280 with two homers. The major-league season continued until the end of August and many older players had their last hurrah in the majors in 1918 but Zwilling was not among them.25
The war ended on November 11. Baseball was not quite back to normal in 1919 with the start of season delayed and travel still restricted. The Indians had their spring training in Bloomington, Indiana, but Zwilling held out until manager Jack Hendricks came to St. Louis to negotiate in person on April 2.26 Dutch reported on April 4 for his fourth season with the Tribe, whose opener was scheduled for April 23. He was ready when the regular season started, playing center field and batting third – getting a double in three trips – at Washington Park in Indianapolis.27 The Indians finished in fourth place at 85-68 in a close race for second with Kansas City and Louisville. Dutch played in 144 games, hitting nine homers including one on the rainy last day of the season in Milwaukee, a game the Brewers won on a ninth-inning balk.28
About two weeks after the 1920 season started, Zwilling was nearly traded to the Kansas City Blues for pitcher Herb Hall. Reportedly it was Dutch who wanted to be traded because “he had gotten away to such a bad start with the Indians, he wanted a change of scenery.”29 The sports editor of the local paper, the Indianapolis Star, was pleased that the deal fell through, publishing a large, if creepy, disembodied head shot of Dutch under the headline “He’s Still with Us.” The editor gives us a sense of how popular Zwilling was and what he meant to the team – “So Indianapolis hasn’t lost Dutch, much to the satisfaction of most of the fans in the Hoosier metropolis. He will still cavort in center field and demonstrate his great fielding ability to aid the Indians in winning ball games.”30 On May 14 Zwilling started a late-inning five-run rally with a two-run homer in the eighth in Milwaukee. Also, he had a great day in the field with a sensational shoestring catch in the first and a triple-robbing catch in the eighth.31 His home run on June 24 was “one of the longest hits ever made at Washington Park.”32 On July 7 Zwilling hit a two-run homer in the top of the 18th in Kansas City, to secure a 6-4 win.33
He went on the “hospital list” in the second inning against the Brewers on July 27. “Zwilling crashed into the right field fence in attempting to capture Johnny] Mostil’s smash. … Dutch had to be helped off the field by his teammates.”34 Dutch returned on August 12, playing for six innings while garnering a hit and two walks “which is another indication that the [T]ribe is strengthened with him in the lineup.”35 Even with the injury, Dutch again played in 144 games and hit .279 with 12 homers, 6 triples, and 15 doubles.
After the season, Zwilling finally got his wish. Kansas City Blues President George Muehlebach announced on November 11, 1920, that he had purchased the 32-year-old’s contract.36 The Kansas City Times called Dutch “one of the most dangerous hitters in the league” and opined that “with the short right field fence [in the Blues home yard, Association Park] … [Zwilling] should prove a valuable asset.”37 Dutch rewarded the Blues with his finest offensive season, hitting .325 and slugging .558 with 35 doubles, 4 triples, and 23 home runs. He had a six-RBI day against the Brewers in a late-season slugfest in Kansas City, the Blues prevailing 16-11. “Dutch Zwilling’s stick work was an important factor in the Knabites [Blues] copping the slug fest. The crooked-arm right fielder drove in six runs and scored one himself. In the fifth round he lifted the little ‘leather apple’ over the right field wire with the bases loaded.”38 The Blues finished in third in 1921 at 84-80.
In 1922 Zwilling was back with the Blues, who improved to 92-76 but still finished third. When the Blues got off to a lackluster 28-27 start, manager Otto Knabe was replaced by former major-league outfielder Wilbur Good. With Good at the helm and in the outfield, the Blues went 64-49 the rest of the way, setting up a great 1923 season. Dutch played 128 games in ’22, hitting .312 with reduced power. In ’23 he was relegated to the fourth-outfielder position but participated in one of baseball’s greatest minor-league seasons.39 The Blues had signed the mercurial Bobby “Braggo” Roth in the winter and Wilbur Good took over center field. This meant reduced playing time for Dutch. Roth wore out his welcome in Kansas City as he had in other cities and was released in early August. The Blues won five straight after Roth’s departure and took over first place from the St. Paul Saints.40 Roth’s departure meant playing time for Zwilling “and the morale of the club lifted perceptibly.”41 In one of the greatest pennant races in minor-league history, the Blues won the pennant on the last day of the season, sweeping a doubleheader in Toledo, to give them 112 wins against 54 losses (.675). The Saints finished second at 111-57 (.661).
The Blues went on to beat Jack Dunn’s Baltimore Orioles in the Little World Series, five games to four, winning the deciding game in Baltimore.42 Zwilling pinch-hit in the game-tying five-run eighth inning of Game Five43 but otherwise did not play, but he did get a full winner’s share, $1,608.67.44 During the series, Zwilling’s former team in St. Joseph was sold and “[i]t is understood Mr. Tracey [the new owner] is negotiating with Edward H. Zwilling for manager, now with the Kansas City Blues, formerly a player here and very popular with the fans.”45
Whether the negotiations with St. Joseph were just a rumor or the deal fell through, Zwilling was back with the Blues in 1924 but not as a player. He spent the season as a hitting and third-base coach under player-manager Good.46 The Blues had nowhere to go but down after the stellar 1923 season and down they went, all the way to eighth place. After the season, The Sporting News recognized Zwilling as a successful manager in the making. They warned President Muehlebach that another minor-league magnate might “lure the famous ‘Spread Eagle Dutchman’47 away. … [W]hoever is the successful luring magnate will get a manager who will deliver in big quantities and with plenty of quality.” The glowing report went on to enumerate Zwilling’s many qualifications. “Zwilling has about the fairest mind in striking a proper balance between the rights of the ball player and the rights of the club owner of any player in the ranks this writer knows. … Zwilling is the type who would have a ball club playing smart ball and hustling all the time.”48
The Blues owner did not take the hint. Player-manager Doc Lavan, who took the helm partway through the ’24 season, was back for 1925 and so was Dutch, continuing in his coaching role. Zwilling did get his first taste of managing at the beginning of the season after Lavan broke his ankle in spring training.49 Zwilling expected the team to rebound in ’25, finishing no worse than fourth. “It’s all in the spirit of a team, a sportswriter commented. “The finest team in the world can’t win unless the players are hustling. The Blues this year will hustle.”50 The Blues opened in Indianapolis where Dutch, who “had to doff his cap several times,” was remembered fondly, getting a great ovation from the local fans.51 The Blues won the first game, 6-1, but then won only one of the next nine.52 Alas, it did not get much better the rest of the season and the Blues settled for fifth place, 80-87. Dutch played first base in the last game of the season, getting a double in four trips to the plate. He made 12 putouts at first without an error.53
The following season, 1926, Zwilling was not the choice in Kansas City, which changed managers again, but after refusing Western League franchise offers the previous two years, he signed a contract to manage the Lincoln (Nebraska) Links for 1926. The reaction of the Kansas City sporting press was effusive. “Zwilling knows baseball, possesses a fine knowledge of human nature that should help him greatly in handling men; … If the Lincoln owner is fortunate enough to give ‘Dutch’ Zwilling fairly good material the Dutchman will do the rest.”54 In 1925 Lincoln had finished last and desperately needed “good material” but none was forthcoming. Zwilling, who told the Nebraska papers, “[w]e are going to have a fighting team,” admitted he need “a new first baseman, two pitchers … and two new outfielders,” was given old or very inexperienced players.55 At 37, not having played a full season since 1922, Dutch became the everyday first baseman, hitting .296 with 31 doubles, 11 triples, and 6 home runs.
Such was Zwilling’s popularity in Kansas City that the Blues fans organized a “Dutch Zwilling Day” in St. Joseph when the Links came to town for a June 6 doubleheader. More than 200 fans made the 60-mile journey and gave Dutch a bouquet of flowers before his first at-bat. Unfortunately for the Zwilling fans, Dutch had a rough day at the plate and his team dropped both ends of the twin bill. It was that kind of season for Lincoln; they crept up one spot in the standings from the previous year but, at 64-101, had a worse record.
Meanwhile, in Kansas City, the Blues could only muster another disappointing fifth-place finish. Muehlebach had seen enough and made another managerial change. In the announcement, the Blues president said “… the club is now seeking the services of an experienced baseball man to take the reins.”56 The Blues fans were also frustrated with the middling season and a few started a petition to bring Zwilling back to Kansas City, this time as manager. In two days, “it is estimated that between three and four thousand fans have signed their names to the list.”57 Muehlebach made it official on the last day of 1926, announcing he had signed Zwilling to a one-year contract. “Of course it goes without saying that I am tickled at the chance to manage the club. I know it is the ambition of Mr. Muehlebach to give the fans a real ball club; to give them a pennant. I will give everything that I have to help him. Only one prediction I will make: The team will be in there fighting.”58
Fight they did. The battling Blues were in the pennant race all summer. On August 27 it was front-page news when the Blues beat Casey Stengel’s Toledo Mud Hens at Muehlebach Field to take over first place by percentage points. “Five Thousand Go Wild,” the subheadline exclaimed. “[The] Demonstration at the Field is Almost as Enthusiastic as if the Flag Already Were Won.” It was shaping up to be a great pennant race for the last month of the season. Kansas City, Toledo, and Milwaukee were separated by .006.59 The Blues and Mud Hens split a doubleheader the next day before 30,000 fans, smashing all Muehlebach Field attendance records. The overflow crowd had to be accommodated on the field. The exciting second game was marred by delays as fans threw hats and cushions on the field when the Blues scored. The game went to extra innings and was nearly called because of darkness. A combined eight runs were scored in the 10th inning as the Mud Hens prevailed 7-5.60
The Blues finished the season in second place (tied with the Brewers) with 99 wins, a 12-win improvement over the previous year. They fought to the end, having a chance to tie for first on the last day of the season. The Kansas City Times called it “the most satisfactory since the pennant days of 1923, and one which kept the fans stirred to a fever pitch in the last six weeks of play. ‘Dutch’ Zwilling, in his first year as manager, handled himself well. The most important task of a leader is to have the good-will of his players and this Zwilling had in a remarkable degree.”61 After such a successful and thrilling season, Muehlebach wasted no time in signing Zwilling for 1928, saying, “The job is his as long as he gives Kansas City a winning club.”62 The 1928 pennant fever started in mid-April after the Blues swept a three-game series from the defending champion Mud Hens. It was not to be, however. The Blues finished fourth at 88-80 but, as ever with baseball, there’s always next year.
Zwilling was back for 1929, signing almost two months later than he did after the previous season. The owner and the manager “had no trouble in coming to terms.”63 Muehlebach was not exactly effusive though, calling Zwilling “very capable” and noting his manager had “shown the proper interest.” The brewer cum hotelier cum baseball magnate “[hoped] to give [Zwilling] the material for a good club in the coming season.”64
If 1929 was going to be The Year, not just Next Year, more material would have to be forthcoming. Muehlebach sold 23-game-winner Jimmy Zinn to the Cleveland Indians in the offseason so those wins would, at a minimum, have to be replaced. In addition to future Hall of Famer Joe Cronin, who played mostly third in 1928, the Blues shed shortstops Buster Chatham and Topper Rigney and starting outfielder Jimmy Moore. On the plus side, the Blues added pitcher Pea Ridge Day, who was 17-18 in the Western League in 1928; solid shortstop George Knothe, a .318 hitter for the Pueblo (Colorado) Steelworkers (Western League); 22-year-old outfielder Bob Seeds, who had more than 600 major-league games in his future; and second baseman Freddy Spurgeon, who was on option from the Cleveland Indians.65 In June the Blues picked up left-hand-hitting catcher Tom Angley, recently released by the Cubs. All of these players made substantial contributions to the ’29 squad. Zwilling was unusually reticent, making no preseason predictions. “Manager Zwilling is reserving all opinion on this year’s outfit until he sees the team in action,” said the Kansas City Star. “The youngsters on whom he has been given such flattering reports he hopes will deliver. If they do the Blues will be a threat. If not, the sledding will be rough.”66
Kansas City won the ’29 opener in Louisville, 8-2 behind Long Tom Sheehan, and then went on to sweep the Colonels in the opening four-game series. In mid-April the Blues acquired, on option, outfielder Ollie Tucker from the Cleveland Indians. Tucker, a major offensive upgrade, would stick with the Blues all season and play a significant part in the championship run.67
By May 23, the Blues had won 22 of their first 29 games. In late June Kansas City picked up former major-league infielder Harry Riconda, who solidified the infield and contributed greatly to the offense. Zwilling’s team continued to win and put distance between themselves and St. Paul. By the end of August, the Blues were 91-45, 10½ games ahead of the Saints, and they clinched the pennant at home on September 22.
Kansas City played the Rochester (New York) Red Wings (IL) in the best-of-nine Little World Series. The Blues won a very exciting walk-off, 10-inning Game One, then jumped out to a 3-1 series lead. The Red Wings pecked away, though, eventually forcing a deciding ninth game in Rochester, won by the Blues 6-5 in 11 innings. “The story of the way this championship was won from Rochester today … belongs in the ‘Believe It or Nots,’” commented the Kansas City Times.68 The Blues were down 4-1 and 5-2 before scoring three in their half of the seventh. The game was marred by fist fights between players, spectators rushing the field, and ejections.69 President Muehlebach was a bit more emotive after this season, rewarding Zwilling with a two-year contract.70
Dutch continued to manage every year through 1939, including six seasons for the Blues (1930-32 and 1935-37) and single seasons with the St. Joseph Saints, Sioux City (Iowa) Cowboys, Oakland Oaks, and Birmingham (Alabama) Barons. Roger Peckinpaugh, Cleveland Indians manager, hired Dutch to coach at the major-league level in 1941 but he was there only a short time before assuming the role of minor-league fixer. The Indians sent him to Appleton, Wisconsin, to shore up the sagging Papermakers. Dutch started his major-league scouting career in 1942, working first for the Indians, then the Yankees, followed by the Athletics (who moved to Kansas City in 1955). With the arrival of the A’s, Dutch landed a TV gig on WDAF-TV in a 15-minute show called K.C. At the Bat. The program allowed Zwilling to “discuss strategy, rules and other phases of the game.”71 He also worked a once-weekly 15-minute baseball show on WDAF radio.72 He continued to work with and around the A’s in various capacities through 1959.
In the next year or so, Dutch and Fern moved to the Los Angeles area, into their son’s home. In 1962, old American Association opponent and friend Wid Matthews, responsible for building the Mets scouting program, needed a scout in California, especially someone who could manage two other scouts. Matthews offered the job to the 73-year-old Zwilling who, in the midst of doing yard work, agreed on the spot.73 Dutch continued to scout for the Mets through 1971, retiring at age 83. His second retirement lasted another six years. Edward H. “Dutch” Zwilling died March 27, 1978, in LaCrescenta, California “after a long illness.”74 He was survived by Fern, Robert, and his daughter-in-law, the former Betty Gene Mills.75 Dutch is buried in St. Joseph Memorial Park in St. Joseph, Missouri.
1 “Dinners,” Sporting News, February 28, 1951: 29.
2 In September of 1898, Henry Zwilling was selected by the St. Louis Board of Election Commissioners to be a Republican judge, overseeing registrations and elections in Ward 12, Precinct 11, for a two-year term. “Election Officers,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, September 8, 1898: 12.
3 “1900 United States Federal Census,” database, Ancestry.com (ancestry.com : accessed February 10, 2019), entry for Henry Zwilling [b.] Nov 1888, St. Louis Ward 12 (Independent city), Missouri; Page: 1; Enumeration District: 0190. “1920 United States Federal Census,” database, Ancestry.com (ancestry.com : accessed February 10, 2019); St. Louis Ward 14, St. Louis (Independent City), Missouri; Roll: T625_955; Page:7A; Enumeration District: 284.
4 “1940 United States Federal Census,” database, Ancestry.com (ancestry.com : accessed February 10, 2019), entry for Edward H. Zwilling, [b.] 1888/1889, St. Joseph, Buchanan County, Missouri; Roll: m-t0627—02087; Page: 7A; Enumeration District: 11-29.
5 “Trolley Nine vs. All Pros,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, April 4, 1909: 34.
6 The minor-league statistics and rosters at Baseball-Reference.com do not show Zwilling playing for Bay City, but numerous contemporaneous accounts list him in the box score. See, for example, “Smith’s Single Decides Game,” Detroit Free Press, July 22, 1909: 10. Further, biographical sketches throughout his career state he started his professional career in Bay City. Baseball-Reference.com lists 399 at-bats for Zwilling at Battle Creek. Since he played for Bay City through at least July 22, it’s very likely these are combined stats.
7 “Sox Get New Outfielder,” Chicago Tribune, July 22, 1910: 8.
8 Attributed to Sam Weller of the Chicago Tribune by Earl W. Brannon, “Sporting Review,” Lincoln (Nebraska) Star, March 25, 1914: 7.
9 R.W. Lardner, “Macks Win Final from White Sox,” Chicago Tribune, August 21, 1910: 23.
10 “St. Joe Buys Zwilling,” St. Louis Star and Times, November 16, 1910: 9.
11 “Reason Is Shown,” Topeka (Kansas) Daily State Journal, December 23, 1911: 4.
13 Sam Weller, “Rain Balks Cubs; Stage Two Today,” Chicago Tribune, August 14, 1913: 11.
14 “Zwilling Is Leader of Whales at Bat,” Chicago Eagle, June 19, 1915: 2.
15 J.J. Alcock, “Eastland Disaster Closes Whale Gate; Two Contests Today,” Chicago Tribune, July 26, 1915: 13.
16 James Crusinberry, “Williams to Go, Says Joe Tinker; Out for Trade,” Chicago Tribune, January 2, 1916: 17.
17 His 12 home runs led the majors, tied with Dave Robertson of the Giants.
18 “Tribe’s New Outfielder Gets in the Game,” Indianapolis Star, July 21, 1916: 12.
19 “American Association Leaders Are to Lose Several Stars in Draft,” Lake County Times (Hammond, Indiana), August 2, 1917: 8.
20 Ralston Goss, “Our Champions Hit Ball Hard and Win First Scrap,” Indianapolis Star, September 26, 1917: 10.
21 “Batting Averages of the Indians and Leafs in the Three Games,” Indianapolis Star, September 28, 1917: 13.
22 Ralston Goss, “Indians Win Minor Title from Leafs,” Indianapolis Star, October 1, 1917: 1.
23 “Baseball Is Ruled Nonessential by Secretary Baker,” Indianapolis Star, July 20, 1918: 4.
24 “American Association Season Ends; K.C. Wins Pennant,” Indianapolis Star, July 22, 1918: 8.
25 I was not able to determine what Zwilling did between July 21 and November 11, 1918.
26 “Zwilling and Dale to Report Today for Work,” Indianapolis Star, April 2, 1919: 13.
27 John W. Head, “Indianapolis Opens A.A. Baseball Season with a Victory Over St. Paul,” Indianapolis Star, April 24, 1919: 13.
28 Manning Vaughan, “Indians Finish A.A. Season in Fourth Place,” Indianapolis Star, September 29, 1919: 11.
29 John W. Head, “Zwilling Still Indian When Hall Refuses to Sign Contract,” Indianapolis Star April 27, 1920: 12.
30 “He’s Still with Us,” Indianapolis Star, April 27, 1920: 12.
31 Manning Vaughan, “Indians Score Five Runs in Last Two Innings to Win Game,” Indianapolis Star, May 15, 1920: 8.
32 “Tribe’s Twirler Mows Down Hens,” Star Press (Muncie, Indiana), June 25, 1920: 10.
33 C.E. McBride, “Zwilling’s Homer in Eighteenth Round Gives Tribe Victory,” Indianapolis Star, July 8, 1920: 10.
34 John W. Head, “Sensational Running Catch by Mostil Prevents Tribe Victory,” Indianapolis Star, July 28, 1920: 9.
35 “Indians Want Position Now Held by Millers,” Indianapolis News, August 13, 1920: 24.
36 “Knabe Signs Up for 1921 With K. City,” Journal and Courier (Lafayette, Indiana), November 12, 1920: 12.
37 “The Blues New Outfielder,” Kansas City (Missouri) Times, November 12, 1920: 16.
38 Alport Hager, “Blues and Homebrews Nearly Wore Out Pan,” Kansas City (Kansas) Kansan, September 18, 1921: 27.
39 According to research by Bill Weiss and Marshal Wright, the 1923 Blues season is the 18th best minor-league season of all time. “Top 100 Teams,” The Official Site of Minor League Baseball, milb.com/milb/history/top100.jsp, accessed February 3, 2019.
40 Charles Johnson, “Kansas City Fires Bobby Roth for the Good of the Team,” Minneapolis Star, August 9, 1923: 10.
41 “Club Is Going Fine,” Kansas City Star, August 6, 1923: 12.
42 Don Riley, “Blues Win Junior Series from Orioles,” Baltimore Sun, October 26, 1923: 21.
43 “Orioles Trim Kansas City with Homer,” Evansville (Indiana) Journal, October 21, 1923: 13.
44 “How Players Share in Junior World Series,” Baltimore Sun, October 26, 1923: 21.
45 “New Owner for Saints,” St. Joseph (Missouri) Observer, October 20, 1923: 1.
46 “Zwilling Leads the Blues,” Kansas City Times, January 1, 1927: 1.
47 Dutch was also called “Spread Eagle” because of the way he flapped and spread his arms when under a fly ball.
48 C.E. McBride, “Maybe Lena Expects to Get Blue Overflow,” The Sporting News, January 22, 1925: 2.
49 “‘Play Ball’ Day Tuesday,” Kansas City (Missouri) Star, April 12, 1925: 14.
50 “A Big Task for ‘Dutch,’” Kansas City Star, April 14, 1925: 12.
51 “Zwilling Had to Doff His Cap Several Times,” Kansas City Star, April 15, 1925: 18.
52 “Lavan Off to Join Club,” Kansas City Star, April 25, 1925: 7.
53 “A Double Loss the Finish,” Kansas City Times, September 28, 1925: 10.
54 “Sporting Comment,” Kansas City Star, February 1, 1926: 10.
55 “New Manager Says Lincoln to Have Fight,” Omaha World-Herald, February 3, 1926: 20.
56 “Abbott Loses Job,” Kansas City Star, October 17, 1926: 27.
57 “Want Zwilling as Pilot,” Kansas City Times, November 6, 1926: 19.
58 “Zwilling Leads the Blues,” Kansas City Times, January 1, 1927: 1.
59 “Blues at the Top,” Kansas City Star, August 28, 1927: 1.
60 “Blues Play to 30,000,” Kansas City Times, August 29, 1927: 1.
61 “Blues a Fighting Club,” Kansas City Times, September 26, 1927: 14.
62 “Zwilling Is 1928 Pilot,” Kansas City Star, October 2, 1927: 14.
63 “Zwilling Is Signed,” Kansas City Times, November 27, 1928: 12.
65 “Blues Get Spurgeon,” Kansas City Star, February 16, 1929: 8.
66 “Blues to South Soon,” Kansas City Star, February 24, 1929: 77.
67 “The Blues Get Tucker,” Kansas City Times, April 20, 1929: 18.
68 “Blues Win Title,” Kansas City Times, October 14, 1929: 1.
70 “Zwilling Is Signed,” Kansas City Times, November 25, 1929: 14.
71 “Baseball Programs by Dutch Zwilling,” Kansas City Star, April 10, 1955: 133.
73 “Mets Finally Talk Dutch Zwilling Into Returning to Baseball as Scout,” Kansas City Star, April 8, 1962: 96.
74 “Obituaries,” The Sporting News, April 22, 1978: 37.
75Fern died on August 17, 1983, age 90. Robert Zwilling died on May 12, 1995. Betty Gene Zwilling died on March 16, 2014, aged 94.There do not appear to be any grandchildren.