Al Bumbry

This article was written by John McMurray

A key player for the successful Baltimore Orioles of the 1970s and ’80s, Al Bumbry provided speed and clutch hitting on four division-winning clubs, including the World Series champions of 1983. Bumbry was the spark at the top of the lineup for a team more generally known for hitting three-run homers. While “The Bee” was on his way to winning the 1973 Rookie of the Year award, Orioles manager Earl Weaver was clearly impressed by the young outfielder, saying: “He’s the fastest player I can ever remember playing for me. And he can bunt, as well as hit the ball off the left field wall. In so many ways, he has shown to advantage and expands our thinking so much.”1

Alonza Benjamin Bumbry was born on April 21, 1947, in Fredericksburg, Virginia. “When I was young,” said Bumbry, “I lived with my father but I wanted to live with my mother.” Bumbry’s parents (whose names are not currently available) lived apart, in different sections of town.2

Bumbry’s primary sports interest growing up was basketball, though he did play both sandlot and high school baseball. As a high jumper as a 15-year-old at Ralph Bunche High School in King George, Virginia, an injury changed his baseball fortunes. Trying to break his fall in a pit with little sawdust, Bumbry fractured his left wrist. Even after the break healed, his wrist still hurt, and he accommodated the pain by becoming a left-handed batter.3

In 1964, Bumbry entered Virginia State College with a basketball scholarship.4 He later said, “I was pretty quick. I ran the fast break, and I scored mainly on drives. I was really shooting ’em up, and I loved it. I didn’t want to play any baseball.”5 However, he was just 5’8” and 170 pounds, which weighed against a pro basketball career.

A Physical Education major at Virginia State, Bumbry intended to teach high school after graduating. “Teaching didn’t dawn on me until after my second year in school and I began thinking about what I’d be doing after I got out,” he said. “The more I thought about it, the less I wanted to teach.” Given his focus on basketball, Bumbry did not play baseball in college until his senior year.6

In his only season for the VSU Trojans, however, he batted .578 and exhibited enough baseball acumen and skill to catch the eye of Baltimore Orioles scout Dick Bowie.7 Following his graduation from Virginia State in 1968, the 11th-round draft pick signed as a summer free agent with the Orioles organization. He joined the team’s Class A affiliate in Stockton, California, for the 1969 season.

“If I had a choice, I probably would have tried pro basketball,” said Bumbry. “That was my first love. And personally, I think I would have had a shot at making it. And I guess they thought I was too small. There weren’t many small guys around the NBA when I was a kid—Bob Cousy, Guy Rodgers, that was about it. Anyway, there weren’t any offers. So when the baseball chance came along, I took it.”8

Only two months after the season at Stockton began, however, Bumbry was drafted into the U.S. Army. He served in Vietnam as a platoon leader for 11 months.9 Nearly 30 years later, Bumbry said of his military service, “I’d made an obligation. What was I going to do, run away?” The conditions Bumbry faced in the jungles of Vietnam were difficult, and two of the men in his platoon were killed: one stepped on a mine while the other was killed in an explosion. For his service in combat, Bumbry was awarded the Bronze Star.10

“The only thing I can say about that experience was I’m no hero, but I committed to being an officer,” said Bumbry in a 2014 interview. “I knew that part of the responsibility was that I might have to go to Vietnam, so when my time came, I went. The only way I can describe it in terms of baseball is people say, ‘Gee whiz, you missed two years of your baseball career.’ I say, ‘No, I didn’t.’ Why? Because before I went to Vietnam, I was in a Class A league, and I hit .178. And then I come back, and, in a year and a half, I was in the major leagues. So I can’t complain. There was no guarantee that I was even going to be playing after hitting .178.”11

When he returned from Vietnam, Bumbry re-entered the Orioles’ minor-league system with Aberdeen in 1971. This Northern League team had a slightly lower ranking than Stockton. Bumbry took advantage of the opportunity, batting .336 in 66 games while stealing 34 bases in 39 attempts.12 His time with Aberdeen was so distinguished that he was named the Northern League Player of the Year.13 Still, he was a 24-year-old who had never played higher than Class A, and Bumbry’s major league potential remained in doubt.

The 1972 season proved to be the turning point in Bumbry’s professional baseball career. A strong spring training led to a promotion to Double-A Asheville, where Bumbry started the season batting .347. Then, when outfielder Rich Coggins suffered a severely spiked hand at AAA Rochester, Bumbry was promoted there to take Coggins’s place.14 “By the end of the season, Bumbry’s speed was the talk of the International League, his hitting was the best (.345), and the IL voted him its player of the year.”15 Bumbry’s minor-league success earned him a late-season callup to the majors. He made his major league debut on September 5, 1972, and went on to bat .364 in 11 games.

In 2014 Bumbry reflected on his rapid ascent from an inauspicious start. “People ask me, ‘What do you think the difference was?’” he said. “It was something that I can’t measure. All I have to say was, I went to Vietnam, survived the war, was a platoon leader, I had 40, 45 guys where I was responsible for their lives, the threat of mines, and I survived all that… The only measuring stick was apparently I must have matured from that military experience and from being in the war. I think I matured as a result of the war experience. Then, from that point on, my career took off.”16

Bumbry followed up with great things in 1973. Despite platooning in Baltimore’s crowded outfield, he won the American League Rookie of the Year Award, as the Orioles went on to win the American League Eastern Division. Baltimore beat writer Lou Hatter observed, “Not since the 1963-67 Luis Aparicio era has anyone generated such fan frenzy here as Bumbry on the base paths.” Indeed, Bumbry added a dynamism to the team’s offense: “Bullet Al Bumbry is a man in a hurry. Even when he hits a home run, the Orioles rookie circles the sacks in the style of an NCAA 100-yard dash finalist,” said Hatter, who also called Bumbry “the Orioles’ irrepressible comet.”17

A surge in June (29-for-82) boosted Bumbry’s batting average 34 points, to .308.18 He finished the season at .337 with 23 steals. Bumbry and Coggins were Baltimore’s two young potential stars, and they posted nearly identical statistics. One highlight of Bumbry’s rookie season was when he hit three triples in a game on September 23 against Milwaukee. “The Orioles clinched the A.L. East that day and when Bumbry had a few glasses of champagne and began to laugh uncontrollably, (Dave) McNally cracked, ‘Al does this every time he hits three triples.’”19 For the season, Bumbry tied for the league lead in three-baggers with 11.

Despite playing almost exclusively against right-handed pitching, Bumbry easily won the Rookie of the Year award. He earned 13.5 votes to place well ahead of Pedro Garcia of the Milwaukee Brewers, who received three.20 “In the long run, platooning probably helped me,” said Bumbry. “Some players, like Charlie Spikes of Cleveland, are placed in a position where they have to do well all the time. I never felt I couldn’t hit left-handed pitching, but one of the reasons I was platooned was that we had so many outfielders.”21

For all of his success in 1973, and despite leading the Venezuelan League in hitting during the winter, Bumbry’s second big-league season was a struggle. Another O’s beat writer, Doug Brown, called Bumbry “a confused, frustrated .233 hitter in 1974.” 22 Following a brief holdout to start the 1974 season, when he was believed to have received a “significant increase” in his salary, Bumbry was due to receive a place in Baltimore’s everyday lineup.23 But when his batting fell off and he stole only 12 bases in 16 attempts in 1974, it led to persistent questions as to whether Bumbry’s standout rookie season was “a fluke.”24

Bumbry’s hitting woes in 1974 were so significant that he failed to drive in a run between July 15 and September 13. Said coach Billy Hunter, “[Bumbry] got to pressing when he realized he was in a slump. He was taking good balls and swinging at bad ones.” Bumbry said that he had been so overwhelmed with hitting advice that he “stopped concentrating on what the pitcher was doing.” Moreover, pitchers had altered their approach to facing him. “They did their homework,” said Bumbry, “and I didn’t adjust to it.”25 One highlight for Bumbry that season came on August 12, 1974, an off-day. He married Lynda Bryant, “a budding journalist from Rochester.”26

Bumbry’s offensive struggles made it increasingly difficult for him to earn an everyday spot in Baltimore’s outfield. In 1975, with Paul Blair, Ken Singleton, and Don Baylor as regulars in the outfield, Bumbry was the first man off Earl Weaver’s bench. Though his batting average rebounded to .269 in 1975, Bumbry stole a mere 16 bases for the entire season. Near the end of the season, Weaver played Bumbry regularly at the designated hitter spot while moving Singleton down toward the middle of the order. With that change, Bumbry began a stretch though 1980 where, except when injured, he would be a fixture in Baltimore’s lineup.27

Even so, Bumbry would have his ups and downs from 1976 through 1978. In 1976, he achieved the second-best stolen base total of his career (42), but his average fell to.251. Ahead of the 1977 season, Baltimore traded away eight-time Gold Glover Paul Blair, and Bumbry became the team’s primary center fielder. His average climbed to .271 that year, but his steals fell to 19.

Then, in 1978, Bumbry batted only .237 with five stolen bases in 33 games before a serious injury cost him most of the season. On May 12, while playing against the Rangers in Texas, he broke his left fibula and ankle while trying to return to second base. His injury was considered so severe at the time that there was concern that Bumbry’s career might be over.28 However, he came back and pinch-hit in September.29

Especially for a player who relied on speed, Bumbry’s injury was a major concern. He played in Venezuela again in the winter of 1978-79 to show that he was back in form, but he suffered through an especially slow start before hitting better. As a free agent, Bumbry elected to go through the re-entry draft, recognizing that his own market value had been diminished by the injury.30

The Orioles, along with seven other teams, selected Bumbry in the draft. He was not chosen until the fourth round, a sure sign that the ankle injury had given teams pause. Hank Peters, Baltimore’s general manager, said, “I don’t mean to be derogatory toward Al, and we are still hopeful we can sign him. But he’s going to be 32 years old and he’s coming off a bad ankle. I think this caused some clubs to back away.” 31

On January 30, 1979, Bumbry signed a three-year, $365,000 contract with a $50,000 signing bonus to remain with the Orioles.32 He fell well short of the $1 million over five years that he was believed to be seeking.33 Concerning his decision to be a part of the re-entry draft, Bumbry said: “Maybe I made a mistake. I had some second thoughts. It’s hard to measure the total effect my injury had on negotiations, but I know it had some effect.”34

The status of Bumbry’s ankle remained an issue entering the 1979 season. He estimated that his left ankle would be “95 percent” by Opening Day, attributing the remaining five percent to the injured leg remaining about a half-inch shorter than it was before the injury. “You don’t build up those muscles overnight,” said Bumbry. “The doctors have told me that it could take as much as a year to do that. It’s just a slow process.”35 Noting that he had lost 11 pounds from his 175-pound playing weight, Bumbry emphasized that he was able to run without complications.36

Bumbry’s return to form in 1979 was remarkable. He spoke of hearing the clicks of the scouts’ watches from the stands in spring training every time he made contact and started running down the line. Only when he made it to first base in 3.9 seconds did the scouts finally become convinced that Bumbry was back in form. “The scouts put their watches back in their pockets and congregated somewhere else,” observed Ken Nigro (another of the Baltimore beat writers). “Bumbry was back.” While the initial plan was to play the left-handed throwing Bumbry in left field, he beat out Larry Harlow for the center field position in spring training.37

In 1979, Bumbry stole 37 bases—the third highest total of his career—while playing in 148 games. His .285 average and 80 runs scored gave the Orioles steady offensive production at the top of the lineup, which the team had lacked in 1978. Bumbry still wasn’t fully recovered from his injury that year, and he himself admitted to some uncertainty and lingering twinges, especially when he made sharp turns. Yet he felt comfortable in center field.38

Bumbry struggled offensively in the 1979 American League Championship Series against the California Angels. More critically, his error with one out in the ninth inning of Game Three, with Baltimore on the verge of clinching a trip to the World Series, could have been disastrous. When he dropped a fly ball hit by Bobby Grich, it allowed Rod Carew to score, and Harlow (who’d become an Angel that June) doubled that same inning to win the game. Only when the Orioles won Game Four was Bumbry’s error forgotten.

“I’m totally relieved,” said Bumbry after the Orioles took the pennant. “I wouldn’t have wanted to live with this for the rest of my life. If we had lost this series, I would’ve had to live with this. Just thinking about it, I woke up three times last night before 7 o’clock. But now it’s over.”39

Bumbry also struggled offensively in the 1979 World Series against the Pittsburgh Pirates. He got only 3 hits in 21 at-bats without stealing a base. The Orioles, after holding a 3-games-to-1 Series lead, lost to the Pirates in seven games.

“We were up three games to one, and we felt we could win one out of the next three,” said Bumbry. “And it didn’t happen. I think we were looking ahead as opposed to focusing on the one game we were playing that particular day.

“I contend that in that Series during the last three games—and I don’t know if it was by design—but Pittsburgh pitched the way teams do today. In other words, the starter goes five innings then you bring in a guy for the sixth and seventh innings then you bring another guy for the eighth then you bring another guy for the ninth. Your third and fourth at-bats, you saw two different pitchers, which is the way the game is orchestrated now. So I think that had something to do with it also.”40 Bumbry was right. Pirates manager Chuck Tanner was ahead of his time in his approach to bullpen usage.41

In 1980, Bumbry enjoyed the best season of his career. Playing in 160 games, he batted .318 and set career highs with 118 runs scored and 44 stolen bases. He also had a 17-game hitting streak. Writing in July, Nigro said, “Bumbry is not only back, he is enjoying a banner season. Without question, the speedy little center fielder has been the Most Valuable Oriole.” Weaver, too, stated, “What [Bumbry’s] done is remarkable considering what happened to him in 1978.”42 Bumbry would finish in 13th place in the American League Most Valuable Player voting.

On July 8, 1980, at Dodger Stadium, Bumbry played in his only All-Star Game. “I was glad to make the team that year,” he said. “Well, actually, I felt I was deserving of it because I had a good year, and I was having a good year at the break. The fans, I think I had quite a few votes for it, and Earl [Weaver] being the manager, he thought I was deserving, so he took me on the team.”43 In a 4-2 defeat to the National League All-Stars, Bumbry entered the game for the American League in the bottom of the fifth inning, replacing starting center fielder Fred Lynn. He played the last four innings and grounded out to second base against future Hall of Famer Bruce Sutter.44

Bumbry would never again hit .300 for a season, and the 22 stolen bases he had in 1981 represented the only time he would again surpass 20. Following a difficult 1982 season, in which he played in 150 games but stole only ten bases, Bumbry conceded that “it was a case of trying to do too much for too long” while playing with a sore leg and that he should have gone on the disabled list. Orioles manager Joe Altobelli echoed the point, saying, “It was obvious [Bumbry] couldn’t do the things he was used to doing.”45

With Bumbry’s injury troubles, John Shelby offered the team a potential star in center. Shelby, who debuted in 1981, had great speed and defensive prowess, including an arm that was stronger than Bumbry’s. Yet Shelby could not achieve enough consistency to bump Bumbry from the regular spot. Bumbry remained the team’s center fielder through 1984 in spite of regular pressure from Shelby. Said USA Today’s Rick Ostrow in 1983, “The problem is that, at 36, Bumbry shows few signs of being ready to step aside, and Shelby is having a difficult time cracking the lineup as anything but a spot player.”46

Though Bumbry had a relatively average season in 1983 (.275 batting average with 104 hits and 12 stolen bases), the Orioles won the only World Series of his career. His postseason struggles continued, as he got only one hit in eight ALCS at-bats and one more, a double, in 11 trips in the World Series against the Philadelphia Phillies. Even though Baltimore became Series champs in 1983, Bumbry actually ties his fondest memory in baseball to the loss to Pittsburgh four years previously.

“It’s great when you go out and get introduced as a member of the 1983 World Series champions. But my most memorable moment in baseball was actually in 1979. After we lost the World Series in ’79 to Pittsburgh, we had the parade in Baltimore. And the fans were totally enthusiastic. I couldn’t believe it because we had lost. In ’83, they were good also, but we won so you’re expecting them to be there when you win. I was totally taken aback when they were there when we lost. Everybody was going to show when we won, but they were there even when we lost. That always stands out as my most memorable moment as a member of the Orioles.”47

In 1984, Bumbry rebounded from some initial struggles at the plate by making an adjustment. “What Bumbry finally did was spread out more at the plate. The change was slight, only about three or four inches, but the results were noticeably different… Almost overnight, Bumbry’s average climbed at a remarkable pace, rising almost 100 points to a respectable .275.” Further, while Bumbry stole only nine bases in 1984, speed mattered less in a lineup powered by Cal Ripken and Eddie Murray’s home run power.48

On November 8, 1984, Bumbry was released by Baltimore after 13 seasons. The Orioles would soon sign Fred Lynn to be the team’s new center fielder. Bumbry signed as a free agent with the San Diego Padres for the 1985 season.

“Going to San Diego, I had another chance to play another year,” said Bumbry, “and also to play in the National League. Of course, I had heard a lot about Tony Gwynn, who was an incredible teammate. I didn’t play very much there, but I got to sit on the bench and got to watch him hit and watch him play. It was a thing of beauty, to watch him play. I was glad that I got the opportunity to do that first-hand. The Padres were coming off a World Series appearance in ’84, and, obviously, they were looking to repeat in ’85. It was a good atmosphere. It was great being there in San Diego. I loved the city, and I had a chance to get to play in some of the National League parks.”49

Bumbry turned 38 near the start of the 1985 season and played primarily a pinch-hitting role with the Padres. Initially, he replaced Carmelo Martinez, who was injured for the season’s first five games, in left field. Bumbry’s role was so limited that, for the 1985 season, he got only 19 hits in 95 at-bats, with two stolen bases. He was released after the season and ultimately retired from baseball, finishing his major league career with 1,422 hits, 778 runs scored, 254 stolen bases, and a .281 batting average over 14 seasons.

In retirement, Bumbry coached first base in the major leagues for three major-league teams: the Boston Red Sox from 1988 to 1993, the Baltimore Orioles in 1995, and the Cleveland Indians in 1998 and half of the season in 2002. With Cleveland in 1998, Bumbry also served as the team’s baserunning coach. He wore the number ‘180’ on his baseball shoes that first year with Cleveland, to suggest that players would be going 180 feet, either from first to third or second to home, until the defense could stop them. “To coach [base running],” he said, “one has to be part nag and part teacher.”50

In addition, Bumbry coached the Colorado Silver Bullets, an all-female team, during the team’s final season in 1997. He’d lost his position as Baltimore’s first base coach when Davey Johnson replaced Johnny Oates as manager, Bumbry said, “I was sitting at home [in Maryland] gardening and taking care of my nine-year-old son when the Bullets called. I was happy to get a chance to return to baseball. I would like to return to the majors someday, but I appreciate the opportunity.”51 Bruce Crabbe, manager of the Silver Bullets, described Bumbry’s coaching style at the time as “aggressive, with a lot of fundamentals.”52

Bumbry has a daughter, Tehia.53 (By 1980, he and Lynda were separated.54) He also has a son, Steve, from a relationship with Carol Clements. Steve played baseball at Virginia Tech. An outfielder, like his father, Steve was known for his swiftness.55 He was a 12th-round pick of the Orioles in the 2009 draft and played in the minors and indie ball through 2014. Because his mother was born in Wales, Steve was able to play for Great Britain in the 2013 World Baseball Classic.56

Bumbry has remained a longtime resident of Lutherville, Maryland. He and Robbie Davis, Sr., have co-owned Robbie’s First Base since 1989. Steve Bumbry has also worked at this sports memorabilia shop in West Timonium, Maryland.57

Al Bumbry remains fourth on the Orioles’ all-time stolen base list, behind only George Sisler, Brady Anderson, and Brian Roberts. He was elected to the Baltimore Orioles Hall of Fame in 1987.

Last revised: May 14, 2019

 

Acknowledgments

This biography was reviewed by Norman Macht and Rory Costello. It was fact-checked by Chris Rainey.

 

Notes

1 Lou Hatter, “’Bumblebee’ Putting Sting in Oriole Attack,” Sporting News, July 21, 1973, 15.

2 Jane Leavy, “High Balls Lose Lure for Bumbry,” Washington Post, August 17, 1980. Available at https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/sports/1980/08/17/high-balls-lose-lure-for-bumbry/63348b94-b4f8-4bc0-9a07-a81a72bf6a86/?utm_term=.3869dcad26a5.

3 Ray Buck, “‘Bumblebee’ Adds Go Go to Rochester Repertoire,” The Sporting News. September 9, 1972. Clipping from Bumbry’s file in the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame.

4 Bob Ibach, “It Took Bumbry Long While To Make Big League Grade,” The Evening Sun (Baltimore), April 5, 1973, D16.

5 Larry Eldrige, “Leadoff Oriole looks more like hot-rookie days,” The Christian Science Monitor, June 10, 1977, 10.

6 Bob Ibach, “It Took Bumbry Long While To Make Big League Grade.”

7 Larry Eldrige, “Leadoff Oriole looks more like hot-rookie days.”

8 Ibid.

9 Jim Martz, “O’s Bumbry Sinks Slump,” No publication given. March 5, 1975. Clipping from Bumbry’s file in the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame.

10 Paul Hoynes, “Basic Training: Indians coach Al Bumbry has green light to teach Indians to stay alive on the basepaths,” Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio), February 26, 1998. No page number given.

11 John McMurray, personal interview with Al Bumbry, July 13, 2014 (hereafter McMurray-Bumbry interview).

12 Bob Ibach, “It Took Bumbry Long While To Make Big League Grade.”

13 Unattributed clipping from Al Bumbry’s file at the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame, May 27, 1972.

14 Lou Hatter, “‘Bumblebee’ Putting Sting in Oriole Attack.” The Sporting News. No date or page number available. Clipping from Al Bumbry’s file at the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame, May 27, 1972. See also https://www.baseball-reference.com/bullpen/1973_American_League_Rookie_o...

15 Bob Ibach, “It Took Bumbry Long While To Make Big League Grade.”

16 McMurray-Bumbry interview/

17 Hatter, “’Bumblebee’ Putting Sting in Oriole Attack.”

18 Ibid.

19 Unattributed clipping from Al Bumbry’s file at the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame, October 13, 1973.

20 Jack Lang, “Speedboy Bumbry Runs Off With Rookie Crown in A.L.,” Sporting News, December 8, 1973, 40.

21 Lou Hatter, “Weaver Wets Whistle Over New Oriole Speed,” Sporting News, April 21, 1973, 18.

22 Doug Brown, “Bumbry’s Latin Bat Makes Oriole Hit.” No further publication information. Clipping from Al Bumbry’s file at the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame.

23 “Bumbry, Orioles Come to Terms,” 1974. No further publication information given. Clipping from Al Bumbry’s file at the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame. Also Jim Henneman, “Bumbry Chirping From Treetops as Oriole DH,” Sporting News, May 31, 1973.

24 Jim Henneman, “Bumbry Chirping From Treetops as Oriole DH.”

25 Jim Martz, “O’s Bumbry Sinks Slump.” No publication given, March 5, 1975. Clipping from Al Bumbry’s file at the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame.

26 August 3, 1974. Unattributed clipping from Al Bumbry’s file at the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame. See also Baltimore Orioles 1976 Media Guide available at https://content.mlb.com/documents/3/3/2/265782332/1976_media_guide.pdf, p. 62.

27 Jim Henneman, “Green Light Flashes for Bumbry When Davis Receives Pink Slip.” No date or publication given. Clipping from Al Bumbry’s file at the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame.

28 “Bravo for Bumbry,” letter by Clark Cato, August 9, 1980. No further publication information given. Unattributed clipping from Al Bumbry’s file at the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame

29 Ken Nigro, “Birds’ Bumbry Blazing in Old Pre-Injury Style.” No publication given, July 19, 1980. Clipping from Al Bumbry’s file at the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame.

30 “Orioles sign Bumbry to 3-year-contract,” January 31, 1979. No further information given. Clipping from Al Bumbry’s file at the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame.

31 Unattributed clipping from Al Bumbry’s file at the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame. November 25, 1978.

32 Al Bumbry’s page at www.baseball-reference.com, accessed on February 1, 2019, https://www.baseball-reference.com/players/b/bumbral01.shtml.

33 Jim Henneman, “Bumbry Exit with Orioles May Be Final.” No publication given. November 4, 1978. Clipping from Al Bumbry’s file at the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame.

34 Jim Henneman, “Orioles Discover Homing Pigeon…” February 17, 1979. Unattributed clipping from Al Bumbry’s file at the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame.

35 Ibid.

36 Jim Henneman, “Injured Leg Okay, Bumbry Insists,” Sporting News, January 20, 1979.

37 Ken Nigro, “Hale Bumbry Could Put ‘Fly’ Back in Orioles,” The Sporting News, April 14, 1979.

38 Ken Nigro, “Birds’ Bumbry Blazing in Old Pre-Injury Style,” The Sporting News, July 19, 1980, 37/

39 No author given. “Bumbry Gets Off the Hook,” New York Times, October 7, 1979. Clipping from Bumbry’s file in the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame.

40 John McMurray, personal Interview with Al Bumbry, July 13, 2014.

41 See Rory Costello, “Chuck Tanner and the Bullpen,” in When Pops Led the Family: The 1979 Pittsburgh Pirates (SABR, 2016), edited by Bill Nowlin and Gregory H. Wolf.

42 Nigro, “Birds’ Bumbry Blazing in Old Pre-Injury Style.”

43 McMurray-Bumbry interview.

44 Page from www.baseball-reference.com on the 1980 All-Star Game, accessed on February 28, 2019, at https://www.baseball-reference.com/allstar/1980-allstar-game.shtml.

45 No author or publication given. “Bumbry Not Ready To Toss In Towel,” November 30, 1982. Clipping from Bumbry’s file in the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame.

46 Rick Ostrow, “Shelby Gives Baltimore repeat of Bumbry story,” USA Today, April 28, 1983. No page number.

47 McMurray-Bumbry interview.

48 No author or publication given. “Bumbry Regaining Old Fire at the Plate,” June 11, 1984. Clipping from Bumbry’s file in the Giamatti Research Center at the Baseball Hall of Fame.

49 McMurray-Bumbry interview.

50 Paul Hoynes, “Basic Training: Indians coach Al Bumbry has green light to teach Indians to stay alive on the basepaths,” Plain Dealer, February 26, 1998. No page number given.

51 Mark Lastinger, “Bumbry aims to boost Silver Bullets’ offense,” Albany Herald, May 25, 1997.

52 Steve DeShazo, “Bumbry glad to get back into coaching,” Free Lance-Star (Fredericksburg, Virginia), April 26, 1997. No page number given.

53 Baltimore Orioles 1976 Media Guide available at https://content.mlb.com/documents/3/3/2/265782332/1976_media_guide.pdf, p. 62.

54 Leavy, “High Balls Lose Lure for Bumbry,”

55 See “Bumbry Out to Write His Own Story,” Collegiate Times, March 14, 2007. Available at: http://www.collegiatetimes.com/sports/bumbry-out-to-write-his-own-story/...

56 Mike Mueller, “Through WBC, Bumbry gets to Welsh roots,” Unlocking the Keys (Frederick Keys blog), March 1, 2013 (https://frederickkeys.mlblogs.com/through-wbc-bumbry-gets-to-welsh-roots...)

57 Nelson Coffin, “For Legendary Oriole Al Bumbry, Memories Stay Alive at Timonium Shop,” The Baltimore Sun, March 30, 2016. Available at: https://www.baltimoresun.com/news/maryland/baltimore-county/lutherville/....