Garry Lewis Templeton was born on March 24, 1956, in Lockney, Texas, a small town in the state’s northern Panhandle. Templeton’s father, Spiavia, played in the Negro leagues, but Garry was not aware of his father’s history until he was 12 or 13. Spiavia was a backup infielder who played with Satchel Paige (who once remarked that young Garry looked like a young Spiavia).1 The Templeton family moved from Texas to southern California when Garry was a teenager. Garry spent his summers working for his father’s auto-washing company, Templeton Traveling Washrags, which had contracts to wash fleets of vehicles. “I washed every post office vehicle in Orange County,” Garry recalled.2 He was nicknamed “Jumpsteady” by his cousin, who said he jumped more than danced to the Aretha Franklin 1971 song “Rock Steady.”3
Templeton’s parents encouraged education combined with sports, and Garry followed that plan. He was named First-Team All-County by the Los Angeles Times as a senior defensive back at Santa Ana Valley High School in Santa Ana, California. His football acumen was enough to earn him a scholarship offer from the University of California at Los Angeles. The opportunity for an education was what appealed to Templeton more. Even being drafted by the St. Louis Cardinals in the first round of the 1974 free-agent draft was not enough at first to sway a switch to baseball. Garry was set on accepting his scholarship and continuing his education, until a conversation with his father. Spiavia encouraged his son to follow whatever drove him, but reminded him that not everyone has the opportunity to be drafted and play in the major leagues.4 After careful consideration, Templeton decided to follow his baseball path.
Templeton was assigned to the Gulf Coast League Cardinals (Rookie League) to start his career. One of his teammates was future super-agent Scott Boras. Because of his speed, the parent Cardinals had the right-handed-batting Templeton become a switch-hitter. “I was a very, very, very good right-handed hitter,” Templeton said.5 On his first day of rookie ball, Templeton got five straight hits off teammate and future major leaguer Bill Caudill. The team told him to switch to the left side, and he proceeded to go hitless. “The adjustment was more mental than physical,”6 Templeton said. The Cardinals figured he could take advantage of his speed by being closer to first base against right-handed pitchers. In 71 at-bats Templeton hit .268 and was second on the team with eight stolen bases after 18 games. Moved up to St. Petersburg (Class-A Florida State League), he hit .211 in 95 at-bats.
Templeton began the 1975 season at St. Petersburg, and after 82 games (.264) he was promoted to the Double-A Arkansas Travelers (Texas League). He had a .395 average before having knee surgery to replace damaged cartilage. The surgery was not enough to slow him down; Templeton finished the season batting .401 and led the team with 16 stolen bases.
The 1976 season began with high hopes for Templeton based on his 1975 performance. It was assumed that it was only a matter of time until the young shortstop was fielding grounders at Busch Stadium. The Cardinals traded for Don Kessinger to play shortstop until Templeton was ready, which St. Petersburg manager Jack Krol figured would be by the middle of 1976.7 Templeton began with the Triple-A Tulsa Oilers (American Association). Through the middle of May, he batted only .247, then caught fire and after 106 games was batting .321 with 25 stolen bases, but with 34 errors at shortstop. On June 10 Templeton got the opportunity to showcase his talents for the big-league Cardinals, who came to Tulsa for an exhibition game. Templeton impressed Cardinals manager Red Schoendienst, who said, “He’s a good-looking prospect. He has the tools to be a good one if he keeps on improving.”8
George Kissell, special assistant to the general manager, said he was “amazed” with Templeton’s range, adding, “He can go in the hole and then throw with accuracy to get the man out.”9 One thing holding the Cardinals back from calling Templeton up sooner was the new four-year contract the major-league players had yet to ratify. In December 1975, an independent arbitrator had essentially eliminated the reserve clause. The new four-year deal gave teams six years of control over a player. If the Cardinals had called Templeton up before the ratification, he could have become a free agent after the 1977 season. The players okayed the new contract in July and Templeton made his debut just under a month later.
Templeton was inserted into the starting lineup on August 9, the day he was called up, and he was ready for the challenge. “I think I can handle almost anything,” he said.10 He admitted he felt no pressure, but had butterflies. “I had butterflies all throughout my career. I think all good athletes have butterflies, and you use it to your advantage,” he later said.11
The hype surrounding Templeton and his debut were justified. Templeton went 1-for-4 in his debut, with a single in his last at-bat of the night as the Cardinals lost to the visiting Houston Astros, 13-4. Through his first nine games, he managed only 8 hits in 39 at-bats, but a 2-for-4 night against Atlanta helped change the course of his season; Templeton finished the season with a .291 batting average and 11 stolen bases. He hit his first major-league home run on September 9 off Don Carrithers of the Montreal Expos. Templeton received the John B. Sheridan Award as St. Louis’s rookie of the year, sharing the honor with Hector Cruz.12
Templeton’s 1977 season was even better. Offense took center stage. Templeton hit .322, was second on the team with 28 stolen bases (behind a 38-year-old Lou Brock), was third on the team with 79 RBIs, and led the major leagues with 18 triples. His defense was less stellar, as he was third in the National League with 32 errors at shortstop. Templeton was named to the NL All-Star team as a reserve. He hit a double in his only at-bat in the game.
The next season, 1978, was similar to 1977. Templeton’s.280 batting average was third on the team among regular starters, while his 34 stolen bases led the Cardinals. He again led the league in triples with 13. Despite leading the league with 40 errors, his 5.21 Range Factor (9 times putouts plus assists divided by innings played) was best for a shortstop in the National League.
Before the 1979 season, Templeton threatened to sit out season if he didn’t get a raise from $100,000 to $150,000. Templeton felt the Cardinals’ contract offer, which called for a 10 percent pay cut, was an insult. General manager John Claiborne defended the offer, which he said was based on the team’s 69-93 record and a drop of almost 400,000 in attendance. Templeton countered with an ultimatum: “Either get me traded or get me more money.”13 In the end he signed a one-year contract and a raise to a reported $130,000. He responded by having another strong season.
Templeton became the first player to get 100 hits from each side of the plate. Again, he led the league in errors (34), but he also led the league’s shortstops in Range Factor (5.45). His first-half stats were good enough to earn him another All-Star Game bid, which Templeton turned down. He is frequently said to have declared, “If I ain’t startin’, I ain’t departin’,” but in an interview with the writer, he attributed that to Cardinals broadcaster Jack Buck. He said he told Buck he wasn’t going to play in the game since he had not been voted in as a starter. Buck responded, “So if you ain’t startin’ you ain’t departin’?” Templeton laughed, and agreed with the veteran broadcaster.14 Later, Templeton repeated Buck’s line in interviews.
Toward the end of the season, Templeton reiterated his desire for a new contract, but without the strong trade demand from before. “Hopefully, [the Cardinals] will give me a long-term contract and show me they want me around. I’m happy in St. Louis and want to play there,” Templeton said, but added, “But if they play games with me … I’m going to play out my option.”15
Templeton’s 1980 started strong. He was batting a league-leading .326 when on July 23 he broke a bone in his left hand sliding into first base.16 The injury cost him 18 games. Templeton missed another 18 games when he fractured his right index finger during infield practice a month later.17 Templeton ended the season with a .319 batting average, which earned him his first Silver Slugger Award. According to Range Factor he was the best defensive shortstop in the National League despite leading the league with 29 errors.
Templeton’s 1981 was less about his on-field performance, and more about his supposed on-field actions. The season started with a triple play on Opening Day against the Phillies. With the bases loaded, Gary Matthews lined out to Templeton, who threw to catcher Darrell Porter, who threw to Keith Hernandez at first, who threw to Tommy Herr at second.
The most infamous event of Templeton’s career came on August 26, 1981. The media and Templeton have different accounts.
In the bottom of the first, Templeton swung at strike three, but failed to run to first after Giants catcher Milt May dropped the ball. The fans booed his lack of effort, and Templeton responded with a middle finger. When he came to play the field in the second and third innings, the fans continued to boo. Templeton responded with another obscene gesture, and was promptly ejected by home-plate umpire Bruce Froemming. Templeton grabbed his crotch, prompting manager Whitey Herzog to race out of the dugout and retrieve his shortstop. Templeton and his manager got into a shoving match in the dugout, and had to be separated by teammates.18
Templeton recalled a very different story. He remembered going back to the dugout while fans were booing. Fans behind the dugout were throwing items and he responded with a middle finger while on the top step of the dugout. “The photographer was right there and happened to catch it,” Templeton said of the infamous photo.19 Templeton’s ejection was due to his grabbing his crotch. “I was on the on-deck circle. I don’t remember who was in front of me, but he struck out. I was turning to go to the dugout, when three guys came down behind the on-deck circle and called me names, like the n-word. So I grabbed my crotch and told them what they could do.”20 Templeton said he thought manager Whitey Herzog heard the encounter. “He was close, he had to have. Other people did.”21 Herzog pulled Templeton down into the dugout, and the fracas ensued.
Templeton was fined $5,000 by Herzog and suspended without pay for three weeks.22 The team agreed to lift the suspension after Templeton agreed to seeing a psychiatrist. He was checked in to a hospital two days after the suspension was lifted. A psychiatric evaluation revealed a battle with depression. He was given medication, and agreed to continue to see a psychiatrist. Templeton apologized to the fans with a press conference, but the relationship between he and the Cardinals was irreparable.23
Templeton played in only 80 games in 1981 and batted .288. After the season, on December 10, he was traded to the San Diego Padres in a six-player deal in which future Hall of Famer Ozzie Smith went back to the Cardinals. Templeton injured his knee just before Opening Day in 1982, and his numbers dropped. Through 1981 he batted .303 as a left-hander. In 1982 he batted .245 from the left side. The knee injury made it harder to plant and turn. He thought about asking if he could bat solely from the right side, but ultimately decided against it. Throughout his career, Templeton had seven surgeries on his knee.24
Templeton rehabbed his knee throughout the winter, but was forced to have arthroscopic knee surgery on March 10, 1983.25 He was cleared just before the start of the season, but went on the disabled list at the end of April, and again at the beginning of June. The second half of the season was kinder to Templeton. On July 31 the Braves and Padres faced off in San Diego. In the top of the fourth inning, Glenn Hubbard came up to bat with runners at first and second. With the runners going, Hubbard hit a blooper into left field. Templeton raced over to make the catch. He quickly flipped the ball to Tim Flannery at second, who threw to Kurt Bevacqua at first to complete a triple play. Templeton was confident in the triple play even before it happened. “The most difficult part was getting to the ball. When I saw the runners going, I knew we had a triple play,” he said.26 Templeton finished the season batting .263, but his average from the left side, .257, was still below his career average.
Templeton again spent the offseason rehabilitating his knee. The Padres went into the 1984 season with high hopes after the acquisition of relief pitcher Rich “Goose” Gossage; however, those hopes hinged on the team staying healthy, including Templeton. Templeton responded by playing in the most games since 1979. His .258 batting average was good enough for a Silver Slugger Award. The Padres won the National League West championship and faced the Chicago in the National League Championship Series. The Cubs won the first two games in Chicago. The Padres, aided by Templeton’s two RBIs, won Game Three. The Padres won all three games in San Diego, which set up a World Series matchup with the Detroit Tigers. The Tigers and Padres split the first two games in San Diego, but the Padres dropped the next three games in Detroit, losing the series. Templeton finished the postseason with a .324 batting average. This was his only postseason action.
Templeton felt his knee did not fully respond to surgery until 1985.27 The rehabilitation paid off; he batted .282 and was named to the NL All-Star Team for the third and final time, as Ozzie Smith’s backup. Templeton singled in a pinch-hit appearance in the top of the fourth inning, but was replaced by Ryne Sandberg in the bottom of the fourth. Templeton’s season came to a premature close when he chipped his shin with a foul ball, which caused him to miss the final five games of the season. The Padres overall finished a disappointing third. “I felt the 1985 team was better [than the 1984 team],” he said.28
The 1986 and 1987 seasons were tough ones for both the Padres and Templeton. While the team struggled to fourth- and sixth-place finishes under Steve Boros and Larry Bowa, Templeton’s knee problems caused a drop in his offensive production. He used the time, though, to mentor the team’s younger players, like Bip Roberts. Roberts told a Los Angeles Times reporter, “It’s the sign of a special person. The first time I met him, that stuck out. He said, ‘Come over and hit (at his private batting cage). Bring the family.’… Tempy’s special. He’s a special person.”29 Teammate Jerry Royster was not surprised. “He’s a very likeable person. There’s not one guy who doesn’t like him,” Royster said. 30
The Padres went into spring training 1987 with high hopes under new manager Larry Bowa. Even Templeton agreed. “Best group of young kids we’ve ever had here, Jack,” Templeton told general manager Jack McKeon.31 Templeton was even named the second captain in Padres history, after Dave Winfield, by Bowa (manager Dick Williams never named a captain). Templeton pledged to “do my best to be the best captain the Padres have ever had.”32 Bowa commented on Templeton’s managerial-like style of being a teammate: “When a guy like Tempy goes up to a player and says something, it means more. To me, that has more impact than a coach saying something.”33
Spring training in 1988 brought trade rumors. The Padres signed Dickie Thon and traded for Mike Brumley, which led to speculation that the team would deal Templeton.34 One possibility was the Philadelphia Phillies, but such a trade never materialized.35 The team and Templeton both started the season slowly. Bowa was fired in late May. At that time, Templeton was hitting just .184. GM McKeon came down to manage the Padres for the rest of the season, and the team responded by going 67-48 the rest of the way. Templeton hit .273 in that time, but overall batted .249. After the season he signed a one-year deal to return to the Padres.
The firing of Larry Bowa led Templeton to be more relaxed in the clubhouse and on the field in 1989. He felt for the first time that the title of captain meant something. Templeton was also more comfortable with Jack McKeon, who as general manager had traded for him eight years earlier. He felt McKeon drove the team to do their best. “Too many times in this game, we are told what we cannot do. Jack told us what we could do. And kept telling us,” he said.36 The Padres responded to having McKeon for a full season by finishing second in the National League West, three games behind eventual pennant winner San Francisco. Templeton himself had a rebound year, hitting .255. He belted six home runs, the most since his 1985 All-Star year. His defense was also improved. He was second in the National League in Range Factor Per Game, behind Barry Larkin.
In 1990 Templeton played his last full season with the Padres. He continued to mentor the younger Padres, like Bip Roberts and Joey Cora. “I want these guys to become a success,” he said.37 Templeton knew someone would eventually take his job, but he showed the same confidence he always had. “I’m going to keep helping Bip out all I can, but I’m not going to hand him my job…. He’ll get some time in there this year … but I’m still going to play my 130, 135 games.”38 He did even better, playing in 144 games, and tied his career high with nine home runs.
Expectations were again high for the 1990 squad, based on 1989’s finish, but expectation had waned by the All-Star break. Manager McKeon resigned, to focus more on the front office. He named first-base coach Greg Riddoch manager. The team failed to improve, and finished fourth in the division. Templeton had a theory why. “[Riddoch] didn’t like veteran players. He wanted everyone to listen to him and him only.”39 McKeon was fired in late September, and replaced with former New York Mets vice president of baseball operations Joe McIlvaine. McIlvaine revamped the team, and found Templeton’s replacement when he traded outfielder Joe Carter and infielder Roberto Alomar to the Toronto Blue Jays for first baseman Fred McGriff and shortstop Tony Fernandez.
Templeton was used mostly as a pinch-hitter and late-inning defensive replacement before he was traded to the Mets for Tim Teuful on May 31, 1991. Templeton had almost been dealt to the Texas Rangers after the Fernandez acquisition, but he and the Rangers could not come to terms on a contract.40 Templeton found his new team to be much different than St Louis or San Diego. “I was having fun, and I played a lot,” he said.41 Templeton played positions other than his customary shortstop: 25 games at first base, 2 in right field, and 15 at third base. He credited that time with the Mets as the spark for coaching.42 After the season the Mets declined to offer him arbitration, but Templeton had already begun to consider alternatives. Despite having opportunities to continue playing, he was discouraged about the condition of his knee, and did not want to have more surgery. “The Mets drained my knee. … It had blood and they wanted me to have surgery. I didn’t want surgery. … I had other opportunities but I was discouraged. … I could have played another few years.”43
Templeton spent 1992 and 1993 enjoying time with his wife and children and playing golf. At a banquet in 1993 the Padres asked him about coaching, but at the time he declined. Padres minor-league director Ed Lynch called Templeton a few weeks later to invite him to San Diego for a conversation. As Templeton recalled, Lynch refused to let him leave until he signed a contract to be a roving minor-league infield and baserunning instructor.44 Templeton worked with such future major leaguers as Derrek Lee and Homer Bush, and showed them “the little things to be good.”
The Anaheim Angels approached Templeton about managing in their farm system. In 1997 he accepted the manager position with the 1998 Cedar Rapids Kernels of the Class-A Midwest League. Templeton cited former manager Dick Williams as an inspiration. Williams had Templeton sit beside him on offdays.45 Templeton was optimistic about his first team. “This is a well-rounded ballclub. We’ve got lots of strengths. We’ve got some good pitching, good defense, and I think we’ve got a good offense club.”46
Templeton approached managing by teaching fundamentals. “What happens is a lot of great athletes run into the problem of trying to teach what they did instead of just teaching the fundamentals of what they did. That’s the easier way to teach anybody because everybody can’t do the same thing.”47 Templeton’s Kernels finished 1998 at 71-69, nine victories more than in 1997. For 1999 Templeton was promoted to manager of the Erie Seawolves of the Double-A Eastern League. He guided Erie to an 81-61 record, and again the Angels gave him a promotion, this time to Triple-A Edmonton.
The Edmonton team was coming off of a 65-74 record, and looked to Templeton to turn it around. Templeton eyed Edmonton as a short layover to eventually coaching in the major leagues. “After this year, hopefully, I’ll have a chance to go on to the major-league level as a coach or manager,” he said. “If it doesn’t happen, I can wait one more year but then I’ll probably go home and be with the wife and kids and play golf because I miss playing golf in the summer.”48 The Trappers began the season at 2-7, tied for their worst start ever. Templeton knew his team would struggle, especially after six players were called up to the Angels. After a 17-3 loss to the Las Vegas Stars, Templeton quipped, “If I had a team that was supposed to win, I think I’d be looking for that bridge over there to jump into some ice water. … The thing that’s killing us is we’re getting young men who are not ready for Triple A.”49
Templeton later spoke about how difficult it was never having a full team. “Sometimes we’d have 17 or 19 players,” he said. The Angels did not want to pull from their Double-A team, so the team called up players from Edmonton, and replaced them with Class-A or Rookie ball players. Templeton jokingly told his bullpen to keep their spikes on the bench “in case you have to pinch-hit or run down balls in the outfield.”50 The Trappers finished 63-78.
After the season Anaheim and Minnesota swapped Triple-A affiliates. The Twins took Edmonton, while Anaheim took over the Salt Lake Stingers (formerly the Buzz). Templeton moved with the team and guided it to a 79-64 record. The Stingers lost their playoff opportunity over the last week of the season, and finished four games behind the Iowa Cubs. After the season, Templeton’s contract was not renewed. He finished his four-year Angels minor-league managerial career with a 294-272 record.
Templeton sat out the 2002 season for personal reasons, including the death of his mother. He returned to managing when the Gary Southshore RailCats of the independent Northern League called. This time the job was different. Templeton was the on-field manager, but he was also in charge of putting the team together. “I thought about it and wondered what I could do, putting my own team together and coming up with a winner,” he said.51 Templeton was fired after going 67-119 in two seasons with the RailCats. He later recalled the challenges of managing in independent ball, namely having to find players who fit the team based on need, but also based on years of experience, since the independent leagues had rules limiting the number of players based on years. “As the years went by, I enjoyed having control of the roster,” Templeton said.52
Templeton quickly signed up for the upstart Golden Baseball League. He spent six seasons managing in the league, including one season after the league merged with teams from the Northern and United Leagues to form the North American League. His 2010 Chico (California) Outlaws won the league championship.
Templeton stopped managing after a 2013 stint with the Newark Bears. “The independent leagues were hiring younger guys, and I was tired of traveling,” he said.53 Templeton looked back on his managerial career and recalled his simple approach: “I never gave kids more than they could handle. Keep things simple, believe in yourself. I didn’t try to overhaul the kids. … When you struggle, everybody’s giving you all this advice. I would fix what’s wrong, not the entire stance.”54 Templeton summed it up: “Baseball is baseball. You see ball, you hit ball. You see ball, you catch ball. Baseball has been around forever.”
Garry Templeton is father to two sons and two daughters, as well as nine grandchildren and six great-grandchildren. One son, Garry Templeton Jr., played in the minor leagues and as of 2019 was a scout for the Arizona Diamondbacks. Garry’s wife of 40 years, Glenda, died in March 2018.
In addition to the sources cited in the Notes, the author also consulted Baseball-Reference.com and the following:
Armour, Mark, and Dan Levitt. “A History of the MLBPA’s Collective Bargaining Agreement: Part 1,” FanGraphs, November 7, 2016 (fangraphs.com/tht/a-history-of-the-mlbpa-collective-bargaining-agreement-part-1/).
Fagan, Ryan. “Baseball Strikes and Lockouts: A History of MLB Work Stoppages,” The Sporting News, February 5, 2018. (sportingnews.com/us/mlb/news/mlb-free-agents-labor-dispute-history-1994-1981-strike-1990-lockout-marvin-miller-mlbpa/lhl6crvxn0ya1xrc5n9m915xf).
1 Author interview with Garry Templeton, December 22, 2018.
3 Tom Friend, “Tempy,” Los Angeles Times, April 1, 1986.
4 Templeton interview.
7 Neal Russo, “Putting Redbirds Together,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, April 4, 1976.
8 “Templeton Gets a Preview But Cards Take the Feature,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, June 11, 1976.
10 Dick Kaegel, “Templeton to Make His Debut,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, August 9, 1976.
11 Templeton interview.
12 “Cruz, Templeton Will Share Rookie Award From Writers,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, January 9, 1977: 7D.
13 United Press International, “St. Louis Shortstop Sings the Blues,” Detroit Free Press, March 28, 1979.
14 Templeton interview.
15 “Templeton’s Goal: Recognition,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, September 26, 1979.
16 Cal Fuseman, “Garry’s Injury Tempers Cards’ Joy,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, July 24, 1980.
17 Associated Press, “Broken Finger Sidelines Templeton,” Decatur (Illinois) Herald and Review, August 25, 1980.
18 Dan O’Neill, “Aug 21, 1981: Garry Templeton’s Ladies Day Eruption,” St Louis Post-Dispatch, August 26, 2016. https://stltoday.com/news/archives/aug-garry-templeton-s-ladies-day-eruption/article_e2ebeb70-ce60-592f-a506-99c938347842.html.
19 Templeton interview.
22 Dan Kimball, “I Say Trade Templeton,” Mattoon (Illinois) Journal Gazette, August 27, 1981.
23 Tom Uhlenbock, “Templeton Apologizes for Actions,” Carlisle (Pennsylvania) Sentinel, September 15, 1981.
24 Norm Cowley, “Star Teacher,” Edmonton Journal, April 29, 2000.
25 Steve Dolan, “Templeton Must Have Operation,” Los Angeles Times, March 9, 1983.
26 Chris Cobbs, “A Triple Play Helps Padres,” Los Angeles Times, August 1, 1983.
27 Templeton interview.
29 Tom Friend. “Tempy,” Los Angeles Times, April 1, 1986.
31 Tom Friend, “Templeton Setting Good Example,” Los Angeles Times, February 28, 1987.
32 Tom Friend, “Templeton Named Captain, Only the Second in Team History,” Los Angeles Times, March 1, 1986.
34 Peter Pascarelli, “Parrish Should Consider the Silent Treatment for Now,” Columbus (Indiana) Republic, February 28, 1988.
35 Peter Pascarelli, “Merging Hope with Realism, Bystrom Works on Comeback,” Philadelphia Inquirer, March 10, 1988.
36 Bill Plaschke, “Master Salesman,” Los Angeles Times, February 26, 1989.
37 Bob Nightengale. “Templeton Feels Secure at Short in Padres’ Plan,” Los Angeles Times, March 30, 1990.
39 Templeton interview.
40 Scott Miller, “Templeton Traded to Mets,” Los Angeles Times, June 1, 1991.
41 Templeton interview.
45 Norm Cowley, “Star Teacher,” Edmonton Journal, April 29, 2000.
46 Jon Klinkowitz, “Kernels’ ’98 Crop Features (Nearly) All New Faces,” Iowa City (Iowa) Press Citizen, April 11, 1998.
47 Norm Cowley, “Star Teacher,” Edmonton Journal, April 29, 2000.
49 Norm Cowley, “Revolving Door Frustrates Trap,” Edmonton Journal, May 26, 2000.
50 Templeton interview.
51 Mike Clark, “RailCats Land a Big Name,” Munster (Indiana) Times, January 10, 2003.
52 Templeton interview.