Miguel Tejada (TRADING CARD DB)

Miguel Tejada

This article was written by Zac Petrillo

Miguel Tejada (TRADING CARD DB)Miguel Tejada was the dream. A kid born into extreme poverty in the Dominican Republic – geographically close to the United States and the means to achieve an entirely new life – but, in reality, light-years away. Tejada beat long odds to be plucked from his small town and placed under the bright lights of a big-league ballpark. Not only that, he also captured an MVP award and two Silver Sluggers, while making six All-Star appearances over a 16-year career (1997-2011, 2013). His hunger surfaced at a young age, while watching his family do backbreaking work, and only increased in his adult life. Yet his limitless desire to succeed had repercussions. At the height of his fame and fortune, he became embroiled in scandals.

For the better part of his playing career, Miguel Odalis Tejada Martínez led people to believe he was born on May 25, 1976. He lied to make himself appear younger than he was. Miguel was the eighth child of Mora and Julio César “Daniel” Tejada, brought into the world in Baní, on that same date two years earlier, in 1974. (He was a self-described “ugly, ugly baby.”) His older brothers, Juansito and Denio, shared the same parents. He had four half-sisters and a half-brother.1

By the time Tejada reached the age that American children enter school, he was helping his dad and brothers make ends meet by doing piecemeal construction work. His sisters accompanied their mom to cleaning jobs.2 In 1979, Hurricane David destroyed the family’s home and forced them to live in a crumbling barrio for several years.

Baní sits roughly 40 miles southwest of Santa Domingo. Unlike other Dominican towns – such as San Pedro de Macorís – that were known as hotbeds of baseball talent, few big leaguers had emerged from Tejada’s town to that point.3 Enrique Soto, a former minor-leaguer in the Giants system, was desperate to find Dominican talent for the Oakland A’s when he discovered a 13-year-old Tejada. Miguel’s mother died in her sleep on Christmas night that same year, and his father was rarely home while he was looking to find work.4 Scrawny and awkward, Tejada didn’t impress Soto initially. A year later, however, Soto recognized an “aura” that made him believe that Tejada might be one of the handful of prospects he could recommend to the A’s for a contract.5

Tejada joined Soto’s baseball clinic, where boys were drilled in the harsh realities of a baseball career. Once he started playing, Tejada wore his baseball uniform everywhere, because he had no other clothing, and practiced signing his autograph. He idolized Dominican big-leaguer Alfredo Griffin, and later wore the shortstop’s number “4” during his first seven years in the majors. He said, “Every kid in the Dominican Republic wanted to be like [Griffin].”6

Without parental support, Tejada was vulnerable, easy to dominate, and enigmatic (a trait that would follow him throughout his life). Soto became “like his mother, like his father, his coach, his uncle, and his brother.” If Tejada failed to hustle, Soto would bark, “You know where you are from, Miguel! Do you ever want to get out?”7

With a slight, 5-foot-9 and 170-pound frame, Tejada wasn’t a must-see prospect. Scouts painted a picture of a kid with “solid” skills, if nothing special. At a 1992 tryout, the New York Mets told Tejada he was too small for a future in the big leagues.8 One scouting report noted: “avg tools across the board,” “good actions in field,” and “will steal a few bases but not a burner.”9 What few noticed was Tejada’s ferocious desire to will himself out of his past life. He signed with the Oakland Athletics through scout Juan Marichal on July 17, 1993, for a meager $2,000 – more money than he had seen in his life. Tejada told coaches at the A’s Dominican complex, “Move me wherever you want, I don’t care.”10 He just wanted to play baseball. He just needed a shot. He slept at the baseball facilities during the weekends, he had it better there than he did at home. In his professional debut in 1994, Tejada tied for the Dominican Summer League’s lead with 18 homers and batted .294 with 62 RBIs in 67 games.11

In 1995, the A’s assigned Tejada to the low-A Southern Oregon A’s in Medford, Oregon, a quaint place 3,500 miles from Baní. The team gave Tejada the first glove he owned in his life.12 He watched Disney cartoons to learn English.13 On the diamond he flashed an electric bat, swatting eight home runs, stealing 19 bases, and knocking in 44 runs over 74 games. He was voted the circuit’s top player, but he did make 26 errors, causing skepticism. Oakland’s manager Art Howe recalled, “When Miguel first came up… I was a little uncomfortable with the ball being hit to short in the eighth or ninth inning and the game on the line.”14

That winter, Tejada debuted with the Dominican League’s Águilas Cibaeñas. He got just four at-bats but became a regular over the next four seasons.

In 1996, Tejada moved up a level to the high-A Modesto A’s. Playing in 114 games, his numbers improved across the board, batting .279 with 20 homers, 27 steals and 72 RBIs. Though Tejada was narrowly edged out by pitcher Darin Blood for the California League’s Rookie of the Year award, he was voted the circuit’s top prospect and most exciting player. He was no longer an unknown quantity.

Tejada entered the 1997 season as Baseball America’s sixth-ranked prospect. When he was assigned to the Double-A Huntsville (Alabama) Stars he put up numbers to stand with the best in the minors, hitting 22 home runs and driving in 97 runs (good for sixth in the Southern League).

As Oakland struggled deep into the summer, they called Tejada up to the major leagues. His first hit was a triple off Hideo Nomo on August 28 at Dodger Stadium. He hit his first home run the following game. Beyond that, the youngster didn’t do much, batting just .202 with two homers and a dreadful .240 OBP as the A’s finished at the bottom of the West Division.

A broken finger kept Tejada from breaking camp with Oakland in 1998. It wasn’t long before he was called up to the big club for good, though, and once there, he had an immediate impact. “Tejada has made a huge, huge difference,” A’s pitching coach Rick Peterson said. “The energy he’s brought to the club… I think you see a lot more confidence in the whole ballclub.”15 Offensively, Tejada contributed just a .233 batting average and 11 home runs in 365 at-bats.

Tejada started 1999 as the Opening Day shortstop. His team captured 87 wins, their first winning season since 1992, and ascended to second place in the division. In his first full season, Tejada was a solid, if not spectacular contributor. During Oakland’s winningest month, August, he hit nine of his 21 homers and collected 34 of his 84 RBIs. The future looked bright in the Bay Area with A’s first baseman Jason Giambi blossoming into a first-time All-Star and rookie right-hander Tim Hudson debuting with an 11-2 record.

Oakland finally broke through in 2000. With Giambi’s MVP season leading the charge, the team was in playoff contention. Tejada, by then mentioned as one of the game’s top shortstops with Derek Jeter, Nomar Garciaparra, and Alex Rodríguez, received his first ever MVP votes, finishing 16th overall; the result of a 30 homer, 115 RBI campaign (both records for an A’s shortstop, which he would later exceed). His batting average also ticked up to .275. By September, A’s beat writers and fans alike knew they had Tejada to thank if they made it back to the playoffs. “His moment is here to be seized,” proclaimed local sportswriter Michael McKinsley. “I didn’t work just to be in the majors,” said Tejada. “I want to be somebody.” No longer skeptical, Howe said, “Now we’re all praying the ball will be hit to short in the eighth or ninth inning.” 16

The A’s won the West Division thanks to a strong finish. In his first taste of postseason play, Tejada batted .350 (7-for-20), including three hits in the decisive loss to the New York Yankees in Game Five of the ALDS. Unfortunately for Oakland, it was a sign of things to come.

With Giambi, Tejada, and a pitching staff including Hudson, Barry Zito, and Mark Mulder, the A’s were no longer small market underdogs, but favorites to compete for a title in 2001. The Yankees weren’t the only team standing in their way this time, however, as the division rival Seattle Mariners tied a major league record with 116 regular season wins. On June 30, Tejada hit three homers and drove in eight runs, becoming the third MLB shortstop ever with two three-homer games.17 On September 29, he finished off a cycle against the dominant Mariners with a grand slam, becoming the sixth player to hit a bases-loaded homer while achieving the feat. Tejada called it “the biggest night [he] ever had in baseball.”18

Despite finishing 14 games out of first place, the A’s had 102 victories and claimed the wild card. They faced the Yankees in the postseason for the second straight year. The result was the same: a five-game heartbreaker. Tejada, for his part, collected six hits in 21 at-bats. Giambi rubbed salt in the wound by signing with the “Evil Empire” Yankees that offseason.

In 2002, a growing core of young talent mixed with general manager Billy Beane’s knack for finding castaways who possessed overlooked skills. The A’s took the American League West, winning 103 games (second-most in franchise history) and edging the Anaheim Angels by four games. But the season wasn’t a cakewalk. On August 12, the A’s sat in third-place, four and a half games out of first. However, they didn’t lose again until September 6 – winning 20 straight contests, then an AL record. Over that stretch, Tejada produced a .366/.428/.537 slash line, including consecutive walk-off hits in victories 18 and 19. The streak vaulted Oakland into first place, where they remained for the rest of the season.

Overall, Tejada hit .308 with 34 homers and 131 RBIs en route to the American League MVP award. Howe said, “I don’t like to call anybody irreplaceable, but he’s as close as they come.”19 Tejada’s RBI skills earned him the nickname “La Guagua” (The Bus).20 When runners were on base, he drove them home.

The A’s finally avoided the Yankees that postseason and took a two games to one lead over the Minnesota Twins in the American League Division Series. A loss in Game Four sent the series back to Oakland for yet another winner-take-all Game Five. The Twins struck first and clung to a 2-1 lead going into the top of the ninth. A big inning broke it open and left the A’s trailing 5-1 with one more chance. Oakland rallied for three runs before Ray Durham popped out with Tejada in the hole to end the game and the series. Another Game Five loss.

Tejada and the A’s entered 2003 hoping to shed the belief that they weren’t good enough to get beyond the first round of the playoffs. One year away from his own free agency, Tejada took a slight step back from the lofty heights he’d scaled the season before. Although his average (.278), home runs (27), and RBIs (106) each decreased, he played all 162 games for the third straight season, solidifying his reputation as one of the most durable players in the game.

The A’s won their division again and faced the Boston Red Sox in the Division Series. For the fourth straight year, Oakland fell in five games. Tejada contributed his worst postseason performance – just two hits in 23 at-bats. It was the last time he’d see the playoffs, and he never experienced a winning series. Tejada became a free agent, and on December 16, 2003, he signed with the Baltimore Orioles for $72 million over six years. He was entering his age-28 season; at the time, the Orioles believed he was in the heart of his prime.

“The cornerstone of our franchise has been our shortstops,” said Orioles vice president Mike Flanagan, who had played with Baltimore royalty in Cal Ripken Jr. and Mark Belanger. Tejada said, “I love the city and the stadium… I’m going to play on the same field where Cal Ripken played.”21

In his first season with the Orioles, Tejada was everything the team asked for, enjoying the best statistical season of his career. He played all 162 games again and batted .311 with career highs in RBIs (a league-leading 150), slugging percentage (.534), and OPS (.894). He went deep 34 times to match his personal best and won the Home Run Derby at the All-Star break, hitting a then-record 15 homers in one round and 27 overall. Some familiar challenges kept Tejada out of the postseason for the first time since 1999, however – the Orioles failed to overtake the Red Sox or the division-winning Yankees.

In early 2005, José Canseco named Tejada as a steroid user in his controversial book, Juiced: Wild Times, Rampant ’Roids, Smash Hits and How Baseball Got Big. Canseco wrote that in 1997, “[he] started giving [Tejada] advice about steroids, and he seemed interested in what I was saying. Tejada and I had a secret weapon: We could speak in Spanish, which made it easier to talk about whatever he wanted, even if there were reporters around.”22 Tejada adamantly denied the allegation, stating, “I work very hard to keep in shape and any suggestion that I use steroids, or any banned substance is insulting and not worth discussing further.”23 Tejada later admitted that he gave Rafael Palmeiro and two other Orioles players injectable vitamin B12 during the 2005 season. Vials tested by the Players Association found no signs of steroids.

Once the season started, Tejada didn’t skip a beat. He batted .304 with a league-leading 50 doubles while playing every game, as usual. Baltimore manager Lee Mazzilli said, “He comes to this ballpark like a Little League player who wakes up Saturday morning and just wants to play baseball.”24 Tejada was voted an All-Star Game starter for the first and only time and earned MVP honors in the contest after starting a dazzling double play, and taking future Hall of Famer John Smoltz deep. The Orioles gave their fans hope by leading the AL East with a 42-28 record through June 21, but they went 32-60 the rest of the way to finish fourth in the division.

That offseason, Tejada demanded a trade without giving any reasoning. The Orioles didn’t grant the request and he showed up to spring training as if nothing had happened. In March, he starred for the Dominican Republic in the inaugural World Baseball Classic (he played in 2009 and 2013 as well). For Baltimore, things went from bad to worse once the season got rolling, but Tejada was his typical self, chipping in 24 homers, another 100 RBIs, and career highs in hits (an Orioles record 214), batting average (.330), and OBP (.379) in his age-32 season.

In 2007, Tejada showed signs of wear for the first time, playing in just 133 games. On June 20, a pitch struck his hand and broke his wrist. He appeared in the following game, but was placed on the disabled list on June 22, when he missed his first contest since June 2, 2000. Tejada’s streak of 1,152 consecutive games remains, as of 2021, the fifth-longest in MLB history. “I never take a day off because every day I come to the field there could be something that happens I never forget,” he said.25

As a result of the missed time, Tejada finished with his lowest home run and RBI totals since 1999. His 15 errors and .971 fielding percentage prompted speculation about whether he should move off shortstop. Owing mainly to an increase in muscle, his weight had increased to 220 pounds. “He doesn’t move real well,” said Orioles infield coach Juan Samuel. “I don’t know how we can [fix] it. He’s not overweight… I don’t know if… all those games in a row are catching up to him.”26

After routinely reaching the playoffs in Oakland, Tejada endured his fourth straight losing season in Baltimore. The team never finished better than third in its division. On December 7, 2007, the rebuilding Orioles shipped him to the more competitive Houston Astros for Luke Scott, Troy Patton, Matt Albers, Dennis Sarfate, and Mike Costanzo.

Soon after the trade, Tejada was cited in the Mitchell Report on steroid use in Major League Baseball. According to the report, Tejada specifically asked his former teammate Adam Piatt for steroids in 2003. Piatt’s bank provided two checks in the amounts of $3,100 and $3,200 from Tejada, dated March 21, 2003. Texas Rangers owner Thomas O. Hicks shared email exchanges with general manager Jon Daniels about skepticism around trading for Tejada. They expressed “some steroid concerns” and cited Tejada’s decrease in productivity in the second half of 2005.27 In early 2008, California Congressman Henry Waxman, the Chair of the Oversight Committee, asked the justice department to investigate whether Tejada lied to the committee as part of their steroid investigation in 2005.28

Before the 2008 season began, Tejada’s troubles got worse as he sat down for an interview on ESPN’s E:60. Correspondent Tom Farrey confronted him with a birth certificate proving that he lied about the year he was born. A surprised Tejada said, “I’m sorry, I’m not supposed to be here to talk about this,” as he removed his microphone and walked off the set.29 Before the piece aired, Tejada acknowledged his real birth year as 1974 rather than 1976. The birth certificate also showed his birth name as Miguel “Tejeda.”

Changing age to appear more desirable to scouts was by no means unique to Tejada. The practice was especially notable amongst Latino ballplayers. ESPN was criticized for its tactics in revealing the fact.30 Nonetheless, the damage was done. Tejada became a high-profile scapegoat for both age-altering and the rampant steroid use during the 1990s and 2000s.

Tejada blasted a walk-off home run in the Astros’ home opener and got off to a strong start in 2008. Houston General Manager Ed Wade said Tejada’s age “has no effect on the club and he wants the shortstop to play for the Astros for many years.”31 Through April, Tejada held a .345 batting average, but his off-field troubles started to show up on the field from there. He finished with 10-year lows in home runs (13) and RBIs (66). He still managed another All-Star appearance, and he returned to playing nearly every game (158). Although the Astros finished 10 games above .500, that was only good enough for third place in the National League Central.

In February 2009, Tejada was charged with lying to the Congressional Oversight Committee and faced up to a year in prison. He pleaded guilty and was sentenced to one year of probation, a $5,000 fine, and 100 hours of community service, making him the first major star to be found guilty of a steroids-related crime. His probation was later extended by six months because of his failure to meet the required service hours.

During a tearful press conference, Tejada said, “I really apologize because I don’t wanna be in this situation… I apologize to the whole United States because this country gave me opportunity to be who I am… I hope they forgive me.”32

He made his sixth and final All-Star team in a bounce-back 2009 campaign. His 199 hits led to a .313 average and included 46 doubles, another league-leading mark. He struck out just once every 13.2 at-bats, the best rate in the National League. However, The Astros dropped to 74-88 and finished last. That offseason, Tejada returned to the Orioles as a free agent.

Moved to third base in 2010, Tejada posted a middling performance through 401 at-bats. Two days before the July 31 trading deadline, the Orioles dealt him for the second time in three years; this time to the San Diego Padres, who were in the thick of a rare playoff push. Back at shortstop for 59 games down the stretch, Tejada was solid, hitting .268 with eight homers.

That offseason, Tejada latched on with the defending World Series champion San Francisco Giants, signing a one-year deal worth $6.5 million. Hampered by a lower abdominal strain, he was in and out of the lineup. He totaled just 91 games, his lowest since his rookie season. The Giants played well, but, in a performance to which Tejada had become accustomed, fell short of making the playoffs.

In May 2012, Tejada signed with the Orioles for the third time, but he failed to make the major league team. Instead, he played for the Triple-A Norfolk (Virginia) Tides before requesting his release in late June. That December, the Kansas City Royals took a chance on him with an incentive-laden contract. He made the team, but was a shell of his former self, mustering just three home runs in 156 at-bats before he was suspended for 105 games for Adderall use. At that point, it was the third-longest non-lifetime ban in big-league history.

About the suspension, Tejada said, “I’ve been using [Adderall] for the past five years and had medical permission from MLB. But my last permit expired on April 15, and they didn’t give me another… It’s not a vice, it is a disease.”33 Tejada had tested positive two other times that season for steroid use, a contributing factor in his long suspension. While Tejada said he didn’t plan to retire, the slight kid from Baní’s improbable journey to stardom was over.

All told, Tejada’s numbers – a .285 average, 2,407 hits, 307 home runs, 1,302 RBIs, and 1,230 run – compare favorably with the marks of Hall of Famers such as Alan Trammell and Ryne Sandberg. However, the cloud of his indiscretions hung over him when he appeared on the BBWAA ballot in 2019. Tejada garnered just five of 425 possible votes, far short of the five percent required to receive future consideration.

Once Tejada found success in the majors, he limited his participation in Dominican winter ball, though he remained a fixture in his native country’s playoffs for two decades. From 1995 through 2017, he batted .267 with 21 homers in 262 regular season games for the Águilas Cibaeñas, and .277 with 36 homers in 263 playoff contests. In Tejada’s first 13 seasons, the Águilas won nine titles and he earned finals MVP honors in both 2000-01 and 2004-05. As a result of the Águilas’ success, Tejada was a frequent participant in the Caribbean Series. Six times (1998, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2013), he made that tournament’s All-Star team, with the Dominicans prevailing in five of them. As of 2021, Tejada holds the record with 15 career Caribbean Series homers.

In 2014-15, Tejada managed the Águilas for a portion of the season. In 2015, he hit .324 in 105 games as a 41-year-old for the Pericos de Puebla of the Mexican League. He finished his career by going 1-for-6 in two playoff games for the 2016-17 Águilas.

Like the enigmatic boy on the sandlots of Baní, Tejada proved elusive to his teammates throughout his career. He was jovial and lit up by a childish smile on the baseball diamond, but mercurial off it. He often changed his phone number several times a year. Teams struggled to reach him. This reputation followed him into retirement. As of 2021, despite multiple invites, he hadn’t appeared in Oakland for events honoring past players. Yet, according to friends, he’d like to come back to be their hitting coach. He also hasn’t been to Camden Yards since he retired.34

In 2015, after years of giving back to the Dominican Republic and subsequently being taken advantage of by acquaintances, agents, and businessmen, Tejada filed for bankruptcy.35 He reportedly owned a failed chicken farm in Florida before moving back to the Dominican Republic, where he currently resides with his wife, pop singer Alejandra. The couple has two children, a daughter Alexa, and son Miguel Jr. In 2018, Miguel Jr. had a contract in place to sign with the Chicago White Sox, but a failed steroid test halted the deal.36 He instead signed with the Phillies and played minor-league baseball until his release in early-2021.

The story of Miguel Tejada should be that of a miraculous evolution from poverty into one of the best, and most durable, shortstops ever to play the game. How he got where he did – including faking his age – is understandable to some extent, given his circumstances. Yet by taking performance-enhancing drugs, his legacy is tarnished. Nonetheless, Tejada will be remembered as the anchoring force on the early-2000s Oakland teams that deployed advanced analytics to compete with big market franchises and transformed the way every sport is managed.

Last revised: December 13, 2021

 

Acknowledgments

This biography was reviewed by Malcolm Allen and Rory Costello and fact-checked by Kevin Larkin,

 

Sources

In addition to the sources cited in the Notes, the author consulted Baseball-Reference.com, Retrosheet.org, Shrpsports.com, and

Lewis, Michael. Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game (New York, W. W. Norton and Company, 2003).

Miguel Tejada’s Dominican League statistics from https://stats.winterballdata.com/players?key=4283 (Subscription service. Last accessed November 11, 2021).

 

Notes

1 Bretón, Marcos and Villegas, José Luis. Away Games: The Life and Times of a Latin Baseball Player (University of New Mexico Press, 2001): 21.

2 Bretón and Villegas: 21-22.

3 Three major leaguers from Baní debuted prior to 1990 (Mario Soto, Rafael Landestoy,and José Bautista).

4 McKinsley, Michael. “Make Room for Miguel,” Merced (California) Sun-Star, September 8, 2000: D1.

5 Bretón and Villegas: 29.

6 Miguel Tejada, 2003 Fleer Patchworks Baseball Card.

7 Bretón and Villegas: 54-55.

8 Brennan, Christine, “Tejada’s Enthusiasm Catching in Orioles Clubhouse,” USA Today, July 11, 2005: C1

9 Ed Pebley, Chicago White Sox Scouting Report on Miguel Tejada, October 1, 1995.

10 Alex Coffey, “Has Anybody Heard from Miguel Tejada Lately? Well, Yes, as it Turns Out,” The Athletic, June 22, 2020.

11 Baltimore Orioles 2007 Media Guide: .207.

12 Brennan, “Tejada’s Enthusiasm Catching in Orioles Clubhouse.”

13 Coffey, “Has Anybody Heard from Miguel Tejada Lately? Well, Yes, as it Turns Out.”

14 McKinsley, “Make Room for Miguel.”

15 Frank Blackman, “A’s Try to Keep it Up,” San Francisco Examiner, June 19, 1998: D11.

16 McKinsley, “Make Room for Miguel,”

17 Tony Lazzeri and Ernie Banks were the first shortstops with two three-home run games.

18 Slusser, Susan. “Tejada Completes Rare Cycle/A’s Ride Tejada’s Cycle to Victory Over Mariners,” SFGATE, September 20, 2001.

19 McKinsley, “Make Room for Miguel.”

20 Coffey, “Has Anybody Heard from Miguel Tejada Lately? Well, Yes, as it Turns Out.”

21 Associated Press, “A’s Lose Another: Tejada Bolts to O’s,” Santa Cruz (California) Sentinel, December 15, 2003: D1.

22 Canseco, Jose, Juiced: Wild Times, Rampant ‘Roids, Smash Hits and How Baseball Got Big, (New York, New York: Regan Books, 2005): 177.

23 Mitchell, George J., “Report to the Commissioner of Baseball of an Independent Investigation into the Illegal Use of Steroids and Other Performance Enhancing Substances by Players in Major League Baseball,” December 13, 2007.

24 Brennan, “Tejada’s Enthusiasm Catching in Orioles Clubhouse.”

25 Miguel Tejada, 2004 Topps Opening Day Baseball Card.

26 Zrebiec, Jeff, “On the Move?” Baltimore Sun, September 21, 2007: E1

27 Mitchell, “Report to the Commissioner of Baseball of an Independent Investigation into the Illegal Use of Steroids and Other Performance Enhancing Substances by Players in Major League Baseball.”

28 Bogardus, Kevin, “Waxman Requests Tejada Investigation,” Hill (Washington, DC), January 15, 2008.

29 Justinbobbsy, “adsfa,” YouTube, April 17, 2008, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=am6hsj4fzFU, (last accessed November 15, 2021).

30 Winkel, Stew. “ESPN Uses Shameful Tactics in Miguel Tejada Story,” Bleacher Report, April 17, 2008, https://bleacherreport.com/articles/18315-espn-uses-shameful-tactics-in-miguel-tejada-story, (last accessed November 15, 2021).

31 Andro, Anthony, “Astros Just Got Burned by a Couple of Extra Candles,” Fort Worth (Texas) Star, April 27, 2008: 6C.

32 Associated Press, “Tejada in Tears as He Apologizes to US, MLB,” YouTube, February 11, 2009.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DHYzZbWL0tU, (last accessed November 15, 2021).

33 “Miguel Tejada Suspended 105 Games,” ESPN.com, April 17, 2013, https://www.espn.com/mlb/story/_/id/9576752/miguel-tejada-kansas-city-royals-suspended-105-games, (last accessed November 15, 2021).

34 Coffey, “Has Anybody Heard from Miguel Tejada Lately? Well, Yes, as it Turns Out.”

35 United States Bankruptcy Court Re: Miguel Tejada, Reorg Research, August 19, 2005, https://new.reorg-research.com/data/firstday/6412_0.pdf, (last accessed November 15, 2021).

36 “Son of Former MVP Set to Sign with White Sox Tests Positive for PED,” NBCSports.com, July 4, 2018, https://www.nbcsports.com/bayarea/athletics/reports-son-former-mvp-set-sign-white-sox-tests-positive-ped, (last accessed November 15, 2021).

Full Name

Miguel Odalis Tejada Martinez

Born

May 25, 1974 at Bani, Peravia (D.R.)

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