As a young player, Jason Giambi advertised his ideals on a T-shirt: “Party Like a Rock Star, Hammer Like a Porn Star, Rake Like an All-Star.”1 Whatever his proclivities toward pleasure seeking, Giambi certainly could “rake” (hit). From 1999 to 2002, Giambi was arguably the second-best player in the American League, accumulating 30 wins above replacement (WAR),2 behind only Alex Rodriguez (32). In each of those years he finished in the top 10 in voting for Most Valuable Player, winning the award in 2000 and finishing second in 2001.
But after admitting to a grand jury in December 2003 that he had taken illegal steroids, Giambi never again achieved similar success. In fact, his career was nearly ruined when his testimony became public. Yet, with a mixture of talent, honesty, and amiability, he resurrected his career and image and played 10 more seasons. Across a 20-season (1995-2014) major-league career with the Athletics, Yankees, Rockies, and Indians, he morphed from carousing slugger to disgraced steroid user, and finally, to reinvented elder statesman.
Born January 8, 1971, in West Covina, California, Jason Gilbert Giambi was the oldest of John and Jeanne Giambi’s three children. His brother Jeremy helped California State University at Fullerton win the 1995 College World Series before reaching the majors himself from 1998 to 2003, including parts of three seasons as Jason’s Oakland teammate.3Their sister Julie played softball at Cal State-Fullerton.
Jason’s father was a bank executive who grew up in Southern California yet was a devout fan of the New York Yankees and Mickey Mantle. As a big leaguer, Jason wore uniform number 16 in Oakland and 25 in New York because the digits added up to the legendary Mantle’s 7.
John encouraged Jason from the time he was young, building a batting cage in the family’s backyard.4 Though Jason was naturally right-handed, John converted him to a lefty swinger and taught him patience using Ted Williams’s strike-zone chart.5 Even after Jason became a major leaguer, John remained his auxiliary batting coach, shouting advice from the stands. “At every game, you could hear [John] in the upper deck,” said Giambi’s Oakland teammate, Doug Johns.6
Giambi was a three-sport star at South Hills High School in West Covina. He quarterbacked the football team and led the basketball team to a league championship, becoming an All-Star and averaging 23 points and 11 rebounds per game.7 For the baseball team, he was a pitcher and shortstop, batting .386 in three seasons from 1987-1989. South Hills High later retired the numbers of both Giambi brothers.8
The popular and outgoing Giambi was nicknamed “Gumby,” which he displayed on the license plate of his pickup truck. “Jason was kind of in the middle of a regular jock and a party animal,” said South Hills pitcher and future major leaguer Cory Lidle. “He wasn’t crazy, but it’s in his nature to have fun. Jason liked to hang out on the scene, but he was always easy to approach. He never big-timed you.”9
In addition to Lidle and the Giambi brothers, catcher Shawn Wooten and pitcher Aaron Small also advanced to the majors from the South Hills’ baseball squad. In 2006, the same year that Lidle died in a plane crash, he and Small were Jason’s Yankees’ teammates.10
After graduating, Giambi was selected by the Milwaukee Brewers in the 43rd round of the 1989 June Amateur Draft. He decided to go to college but, despite his excellent high school record, he received little attention from Division I programs. Giambi planned to attend junior college before accepting a partial scholarship offer from California State University at Long Beach (CSULB).11
In 1990, Giambi batted .422, was elected to the All-Big West Team, and named Big West Conference freshman of the year.12 That summer, he played for the independent Alaska Goldpanners, leading the team with a batting average of .377.
A third baseman and DH with 20/13 vision in his right eye,13 the patience and strike-zone judgment taught by his father was evident in Giambi’s sophomore season. He earned All-Big West honors again, batting .407 to pace the conference and setting a single-season CSULB record for walks (57). CSULB (unofficially nicknamed the “Dirtbags”)14 won the Central Regional of the 1991 NCAA Division I Baseball Tournament to qualify for the College World Series, where they were defeated in the second round. That summer, Giambi joined Team USA and hit .340 to rank second on the club.15 At the Pan Am Games in Havana, Cuba, he helped the United States claim the bronze medal.
Following Giambi’s junior year, he owned the second-highest career batting average in Big West history (.397) and a school record 116 career walks. He was later inducted into the CSULB Hall of Fame.16
The Oakland Athletics selected Giambi in the second round of the 1992 June Amateur draft, and he signed on July 3. Two days later, however, the United States Olympic team – which had made him one of its last cuts – reconsidered and invited him to replace slumping first baseman Ryan McGuire on the team bound for the Summer Games in Barcelona.17 Cuba claimed the first-ever Olympic baseball gold medal, while the United States dropped the bronze medal game to Japan. Shortly thereafter, Giambi began his professional career with Southern Oregon of the short-season Class-A Northwest League. In 13 contests, he batted .317 with three homers.
In 1993, Giambi moved up to the Modesto A’s of the advanced Class-A California League. He batted .291 with 12 homers and 60 RBIs, though wrist and thumb injuries limited him to 89 games.18 Next, he played for the Kaui Emeralds in the Hawaiian Winter League, going deep five times and hitting .343 in 19 games before re-aggravating his thumb injury.19
Giambi advanced to the Double-A Southern League in 1994, but batted just .223 in 56 games for the Huntsville (Alabama) Stars. Nevertheless, he spent most of June in the Triple-A Pacific Coast League, filling in for Tacoma Tigers third baseman Craig Paquette, who had been promoted to Oakland. When Paquette suffered a season-ending broken leg after returning to the minors, Giambi replaced him and finished with a .318 average and 20 doubles in 52 games for Tacoma.20
After beginning 1995 with the Athletics’ new PCL affiliate, the Edmonton Trappers, Giambi made his big-league debut at Oakland Alameda County Coliseum on May 8. Starting at DH against the Texas Rangers, he went 1-for-4 with a walk, lining a single to right field against right-hander Roger Pavlik. Giambi appeared in just four games before he was sent back to Edmonton. In 55 games for the Trappers, he hit .342 with 26 doubles, earning a return to the majors in July.
As a rookie, Giambi started 48 of his 54 appearances for Oakland – 26 at third base, 20 at first base, two at DH – and slashed .256/.364/.398.21 Teammate Mark McGwire quickly became his friend and mentor, impressing upon him the importance of getting stronger. “He’s the one who got me lifting,” said Giambi. “He and I became best friends, so I started lifting with him all the time.”22
Although Giambi wasn’t in the lineup more than 43 times at any single position in 1996, he spent the entire year with Oakland and started 136 of his 140 appearances – mostly in in left field (43), first base (42), or third base (38). After playing the season at about 217 pounds, he reported to spring training a bloated 250 in 1997.23 Initially, he played left field but, by early May, his poor fielding forced the team to move him to DH. “I tried,” he said, “I worked hard, [but] I didn’t have the foot speed.”24 Giambi told the A’s he would ask to be traded if he was made a full-time DH, but the demand became unnecessary when Giambi’s replacement, José Canseco, couldn’t physically withstand playing the outfield, so the lumbering Giambi returned to left.
Giambi hit in a career-high 25 consecutive games while he shuffled between positions, but he became the A’s full-time first baseman after July 31, when McGwire was dealt to the St. Louis Cardinals at the trading deadline. While Giambi was relieved that his outfield days were over, he was disappointed that his good friend was gone. “We spent pretty much all our waking moments together,” he said. “We were inseparable.”25
Giambi’s final statistics in 1996 and 1997 statistics were solid and strikingly similar:
The 41 doubles were an Oakland record. The only significant difference was his OPS+, which jumped from 107 to 126. Despite Giambi’s efforts, the A’s finished 65-97 in 1997, their most losses since 1979.
In 1998, Giambi showed off his wild-man image when he appeared on the cover of Sports Illustrated in July, stringy hair hanging over his eyes and wearing a t-shirt with rolled-up sleeves that revealed his tattoo and bulging biceps. On his left arm, the tattoo featured a skull melting inside a blazing sun, which, to him represented “Live life, taste death.” He said, “It’s my out-of-control tattoo.” A few years later he got one for his right biceps. It depicted a roaring dragon surrounded by seven small skulls standing for, Giambi said, “… intelligence, power, and wisdom.” 26
Giambi did not downplay his life on-the-edge. Years later, he said his favorite actress was adult-movie star Jenna Jameson, and that he would have been a bouncer at a strip club if he hadn’t been a ballplayer. His favorite turn-ons were “sex and going fast in anything,” He admitted he’d once done 170 mph in his Ferrari and said he had experienced just about everything. “That’s my problem,” Giambi said. “If it sounds fun, I want to try it.”27
With McGwire gone, Giambi batted in the heart of Oakland’s lineup more often in 1998, creating more opportunities to drive in runs. His RBI total increased by 29 – from 81 to 110 – and he relished being the focal point of the A’s offense, the player opposing teams worried about. “I want to be the guy,” said Giambi, “I don’t fear failure.”28
Giambi’s defense was awful, though, in his first season as a full-time first baseman. He made a league-leading 14 errors, the most by an A’s first baseman since 1953.29 He remained a below-average fielder the rest of his career and, as he aged, was often used as DH.
Offensively, however, Giambi became a standout in 1999. He exceeded the thresholds of .300 BA (.315), .400 OBP (.422), .500 SLG (.553), .900 OPS (.975), and 30 home runs (33), all for the first time. He paced the A’s with 123 RBIs as the club finished second in the AL West with its first winning record in seven years.
Continuing his ascent in 2000, Giambi led the AL in OBP (.476), OPS+ (187), and walks (137), on his way to winning AL’s Most Valuable Player Award. He achieved career highs with 43 homers and 137 RBIs and made the All-Star Team for the first-time, beginning a five-year streak. The A’s took the Yankees to the decisive fifth game of the Division Series before falling to the reigning World Series champions.
Giambi and the A’s were even better in 2001. He batted a personal-best .342 and led the AL in OBP (.477), OPS (1.137) and OPS+ (199) by wide margins. Through the 2021 season, no AL player had matched his 2001 OBP or OPS since, and both figures remained among the league’s top six since the expansion era commenced in 1961. Giambi’s 9.2 WAR topped the AL, yet he was edged in MVP voting by batting champion and AL Rookie of the Year Ichiro Suzuki, whose Seattle Mariners won 116 games, the only big-league team to finish with a better record than the A’s. Oakland won 102 games before losing the ALDS finale to the Yankees again.
Since bottoming out with a 65-97 record in 1997, the A’s had steadily increased their yearly victory totals, improving by 37 games in four seasons. “We had a lot of great young players,” Giambi said, “and before we knew it, we became really good, really fast. We had a frat house mentality on those teams. We all got along, and we all hung out.”30
But Giambi’s contract expired when the 2001 season ended. During spring training, he had declined the A’s six-year, $91 million contract offer because he wanted a guarantee that he wouldn’t be traded. “If I’m going to make a commitment here, then I’d like a commitment back,” Giambi said. But the A’s waited too long and, after his terrific season, Giambi had priced himself out of their market.31
In mid-December, Giambi signed a 7-year, $120 million contract to play for his father’s beloved Yankees.32 At the announcement, with tears in his eyes, Giambi smiled at his father and said, “Look, Pop, it’s not number 7, but it’s pinstripes.”33 To conform with Yankees codes, Giambi cut his hair, got rid of his stubble, and curtailed dangerous hobbies, such as riding his custom-built motorcycles.
Giambi got off to a rocky start with Yankees fans in 2002. They booed him during and after a slow start, in which he batted only .211 in the season’s first 10 games. Things changed on May 17 when, with the Yankees behind by three runs in the 14th inning, Giambi hit grand slam in the pouring rain to beat the Minnesota Twins, 13-12. When he came to bat the next day, he received a standing ovation.
May 17 also marked the beginning of a two-month, 52-game stretch during which he batted .351 with 16 home runs and 53 RBIs. Buoyed by the streak, he hit .300 (.314) for the fourth consecutive season, with 41 homers and 122 RBIs. In making his third straight All-Star Game appearance, he was voted a starter for the second time in three years and won the Home Run Derby. With the highest cumulative OPS+ in the AL from 1999 through 2002, Giambi had established himself as one of the best, if not the best, offensive player in the league. The Yankees won 103 regular season games but were eliminated by the Angels in the ALDS.
In 2003, Giambi led the AL in walks (129), but also, in strikeouts (140). Perhaps enticed by Yankee Stadium’s short right field porch, he started pulling the ball more. Teams began shifting, and his batting average dropped 64 points (.250). He never again came close to hitting .300, but he retained his power, duplicating the 41 home runs he hit the previous season and exceeding 30 for the fifth straight year.
The Yankees won the AL East with 101 victories and beat the Minnesota Twins in the ALDS. In the ALCS, New York trailed the rival Boston Red Sox, 4-0, in the decisive seventh game. Giambi homered in the fifth and seventh innings to help the Yanks draw even in the eighth. New York won the pennant in the 11th on Aaron Boone’s dramatic home run, but lost the World Series to the Florida Marlins, four games to two.
That summer, an investigation had begun into the Bay Area Laboratory Co-operative (BALCO), a company suspected of selling illegal steroids to athletes. Giambi’s name appeared in BALCO’s records and, in December, he was called to testify before a grand jury along with Barry Bonds and Gary Sheffield.
In 2004, Giambi arrived at spring training looking noticeably thinner. He denied that steroids were the cause, claiming rather that his weight loss stemmed from eliminating fast food. 34 That summer, Giambi was beset by a mysterious illness which left him sick and fatigued. Initially, he was diagnosed with a virus, then, a stomach parasite, and, finally, a benign tumor on his pituitary gland. The formerly hulking slugger later said there were times when he could barely lift his bat. He played in only 43 of the Yankees’ final 107 games, batting .152 with three homers in 138 at-bats. Although it would have been unthinkable when the Yankees signed him, Giambi was left off the team’s post-season roster. It had been the worst year of his career and it wouldn’t get any better.
In early December, Giambi’s grand jury testimony was leaked to the San Francisco Chronicle, along with those of Bonds and Sheffield.35 While Bonds had claimed ignorance of the substances he bought from BALCO, Giambi admitted that he had knowingly taken steroids, named them, and graphically described how they were administered. When the prosecutor asked, “So you would [inject testosterone] in your arm,” Giambi explained, “No, you wouldn’t. You’d put it in your ass.”36
The Yankees fell all over themselves trying to void the remaining $82 million of Giambi’s contract, although they had been aware of his steroid use when they signed him.37 With his poor 2004 season as evidence, the club feared that Giambi would never be the same without performance enhancing drugs.
Abandoned by his team, Giambi was excoriated by many. John Harper of the Daily News called him “a Yankee outcast.”38 Harper’s coworker Lisa Olson, wrote, “[Giambi] should never again play for the team he worships.”39 When asked if he would welcome Giambi back to the Yankees, Yogi Berra said, “I don’t think so.”40 In his book Juiced, former-teammate José Canseco called Giambi, “[the] most obvious juicer in the game” and wrote that he had recognized Giambi’s bloated body of 1997 as “a sure sign of steroid overload.”41
But both the Players’ Union and Giambi were steadfast, and by the end of the December, it was clear that the Yankees would not be able to rid themselves of Giambi. GM Brian Cashman said, “I expect him to be in camp with us, 100 percent healthy, and ready to contribute to the 2005 Yanks.”42
In a press conference February 10, Giambi apologized to teammates, Yankees management, and fans – ostensibly for using steroids, but only in the vaguest way. Many times, he said he was sorry for being “a distraction,” but he never used the word “steroids,” despite questioners’ attempts to pin him down. Asked if he regretted having previously denied using steroids, Giambi dodged, “There are a lot of things I wish I had done differently.”43 Citing “legal matters,” he said, “I wish I could be more candid … I know the fans might want more.”44 They, along with the media, did and Giambi was criticized for not being more specific.
But when he arrived at spring training, Giambi began to climb out of the hole he had dug. He was hugged by several teammates, offered them apologies, thanked them for their support, and spent extra time signing autographs for fans. Both groups appreciated his apparently sincere efforts to win them back. After speaking with Giambi, pitcher Carl Pavano said, “None of us are perfect … [Jason is] a real stand-up guy.45 Giambi’s agent, Arn Tellem said, “[Jason] wants to be … seen as someone who faces [his] problems.”46
After 27 regular season games, though, Giambi was batting .195 with just three home runs and nine RBIs. He was in a 0-for-18 slump, had been demoted to eighth in the batting order and, worst of all, the Yankees wanted to send him to the minors.47 But Giambi convinced the team that he should stay. In his next 65 games, he hit 18 home runs and batted .332. The rejuvenated Giambi finished the season at .271 with 32 home runs and led the AL in walks (108) and on-base percentage (.440) – numbers that earned him the AL Comeback Player of the Year Award. Proud of resurrecting his career, Giambi later said, “That award meant as much to me as my MVP.”48 Giambi produced 37 homers and 113 RBIs in 2006, and went deep 14 times in 2007, when injuries limited him to 83 games. In the latter year, he publicly admitted taking steroids for the first time, saying “I was wrong for doing that stuff. What we should have done a long time ago was stand up – players, ownership, everybody – and said: ‘We made a mistake.’”49
In 2008, Giambi clubbed 32 homers in the final year of his Yankees contract, but New York made no effort to keep him when the deal expired. In January 2009, he signed with the Oakland A’s. Giambi was glad to be back, hoping, not only to be productive, but also to recreate the wild camaraderie of his first stint. “When I was here the first time, we turned this place into a frat house,” Giambi said. “I think we can do it again.”50
But Giambi hit only .193 in 83 games with the A’s and was released on August 7. On August 24, he caught on with the Colorado Rockies. After a short stint in the minors, Giambi returned to the majors on September 1. He wasn’t a regular, but he started with a splash, driving in runs in his first three pinch-hitting appearances to help the Rockies begin a streak of 10 wins in 11 games. The surge lifted the Rockies into the postseason as the NL Wild Card, but they lost the NLDS to the eventual pennant winners, the Philadelphia Phillies.
The Rockies were excited, too. Ever since Giambi arrived in Colorado, he had made an impact, not only on the field, but also in the clubhouse. On the day Giambi re-signed, General Manager Dan O’Dowd said, “[Manager Jim Tracy and his coaches told me] how much of an integral part [Giambi] was in leadership and accountability…”52 Giambi hit walk-off home runs on June 23 and September 12. When Helton didn’t play from July 5 through August 2, Giambi made 10 starts at first base and batted .441 with nine RBIs.
In 2011, Giambi had his best season since leaving the Yankees. Although he got only 131 at-bats, he hit 13 home runs and produced a .958 OPS and 140+ OPS for Colorado. When he smacked three home runs and drove in seven runs on May 19, he joined Reggie Jackson, Babe Ruth, and Stan Musial as the only players to go deep three times in one game while over the age of 40.53
Since coming to Colorado, Giambi had changed considerably. He became a father, started eating healthier, and guided off-season training sessions for teammates. Most importantly, he curbed his wild lifestyle. “It was starting to affect my baseball career,” Giambi said. “There was a point where I couldn’t answer the bell. I wanted to be ‘fun Jason,’ but I also wanted to still be able to play.”54
After Giambi batted just .225 with one homer in 89 at-bats in 2012 season, he interviewed for the Rockies manager’s job, but Colorado hired Walt Weiss.55 Giambi declined the club’s offer of a coaching position, not wanting to be seen as looking over Weiss’s shoulder.56
Giambi considered taking the 2013 season off to be with his family, but signed with the Indians because he wanted to play for manager Terry Francona.57 As with the Rockies, Giambi soon assumed a role as de-facto player-coach.58 “He’s not just a veteran guy,” Francona said, “He’s like the veteran. I truly feel that it’s an honor that he’s in our camp.”59 The Indians improved from 68 to 92 wins, for which Francona gave Giambi significant credit, saying, “He has been as instrumental in us moving forward … probably more so than anybody in the organization. I’ve never been around anybody who has his presence.” 60
In February 2014, Giambi signed a minor-league contract to stay with the Indians, but a fractured rib prevented him from playing for Cleveland until April 21.62 Later, he missed two and a half months because of soreness in his left knee. After playing only 26 games all season, Giambi decided to retire. When he announced it on February 15, 2015, he said, “It’s time to come home. I’ve got two young ones and I want to get an opportunity to spend that time in their young lives. I want to be there to watch them grow.”63
By amassing 440 homers and a .399 OBP over 20 seasons, Giambi became one of just 16 players (through 2021) to exceed 400 and .390, respectively, for his career. Eleven are in the Hall of Fame, while the other five have been associated with performance enhancing drugs. Giambi hit 30 or more homers eight times and recorded 2,010 hits, 1,441 RBIs, 1,336 walks and scored 1,227 runs. Over 10 seasons from 1998-2007, Giambi had the second-best OPS+ (155) of any AL player, behind Manny Ramirez (160).
Had Giambi not taken steroids and been the same hitter (a big if), he probably would have received serious consideration for the National Baseball Hall of Fame. Although his career WAR (51) is not particularly impressive, it is greater than those of enshrinees Orlando Cepeda (50) and Jim Rice (47), for example. As it happened, the only time Giambi appeared on the Hall of Fame ballot, he received just 3.5 percent of the votes. (A player is eliminated if he receives less than 5 percent.)
In 2002, Giambi married Kristian (Rice). They have three children, son Tristan and daughters London and Sloan. 64 As of 2022, they resided in Henderson, Nevada. Giambi had been married once before, to Dana Mandela from 1998-2000.65
Giambi professed no regrets about his steroid use or its repercussions. “Some of us have to walk through the darkness to see the light. I did that,” he said. “The human being you see today is the result of everything I went through. It turned me, hopefully, into this mentor that helped the kids in Colorado and Cleveland, and hopefully the most incredible father for my kids.”66
“I wanted to grow from [my mistakes]; I didn’t want [them] to define me… I’m truly grateful that the fans – and even the writers – gave me a second chance. When I got that second chance, I ran with it. I appreciated it from the bottom of my heart that I had that opportunity and that learning experience.”67
Last revised: June 6, 2022
This biography was reviewed by Malcolm Allen and David Bilmes and fact-checked by David Kritzler.
In addition to sources cited in the Notes, the author consulted www.baseball-reference.com.
1 Tom Lea, “Goodbye to Old-Ass Jason Giambi, Who Refused to Go Down a Villain,” Deadspin, February 27, 2015, https://deadspin.com/goodbye-to-old-ass-jason-giambi-who-refused-to-go-down-1686278137 (last accessed September 15, 2021).
3 Steven Ramirez, “Giambi Brothers, Jim Bastion Earn Spot on South Hills Wall of Fame,” San Gabriel Valley (California) Tribune, January 14, 2015 https://www.sgvtribune.com/2015/01/14/giambi-brothers-jim-bastion-earn-spot-on-south-hills-wall-of-fame/ (last accessed January 11, 2022).
4 Jack Curry, “Baseball; With Trouble at the Plate, Jason Calls in His Father,” New York Times, May 20, 2003: D5.
5 Curry, “Baseball; With Trouble at the Plate, Jason Calls in His Father.”
7 Mitch Polin, “Glendora’s Murray Has Record Year,” Los Angeles Times, March 23, 1989: 12.
8 Ramirez, “Giambi Brothers, Jim Bastion Earn Spot on South Hills Wall of Fame.”
9 Justin Rodriguez, “Remembering Gumby,” Times Herald-Record (Middletown, New York), May 22, 2005, https://www.recordonline.com/article/20050522/sports/305229976 (last accessed July 26, 2021).
10 Rodriguez, “Remembering Gumby.”
11 Rodriguez, “Remembering Gumby.”
12 Rodriguez, “Remembering Gumby.”
13 Curry, “Baseball; With Trouble at the Plate, Jason Calls in His Father.”
14 “Long Beach State Players Who Became MLB Stars,” Sports Teller, July 11, 2020, https://www.sports-teller.com/long-beach-state-players-who-became-mlb-stars/
15 Jason Giambi, 1992 Topps Traded baseball card.
16 “Long Beach State Hall of Fame,” https://longbeachstate.com/honors/hall-of-fame/jason-giambi/130 (last accessed July 25, 2021).
17 Gary Klein, “CSULB’s Jason Giambi Gets Another Swing at Olympic Glory,” Los Angeles Times, July 23, 1992: LBJ4.
18 Jason Giambi, 1994 Collector’s Choice baseball card.
19 Jason Giambi, 1994 Ted Williams baseball card.
20 John Lawrence, “Martinez Lifts Tigers to Fifth Win in a Row,” News Tribune (Tacoma, Washington), July 20, 1994: F1.
21 A batter’s slash line gives batting average (BA)/on-base percentage (OBP)/slugging percentage (SLG)/ and sometimes OPS (OBP+SLG).
22 Filip Bondy, “Giambi News Is a Bitter Pill, But One Yanks Must Swallow,” Daily News (New York, New York), December 4, 2004: 61.
23 Pedro Gomez, “Giambi’s Waistline Has Gone Down, But His Average Has Gone Up,” Sacramento Bee, June 5, 1997: E7.
24 Pedro Gomez, “A’s Update,” Modesto Bee, May 8, 1997: D2.
25 Mark Kreidler, “Giambi Now Carries Load Without Mac,” Sacramento Bee, February 25, 1998: E1.
26 Michael P. Geffner, “The Giambi Tales,” https://www.cigaraficionado.com/article/the-giambi-tales-6233
(Last accessed September 15, 2021).
27 Geffner, “The Giambi Tales.”
28 Gwen Knapp, “Giambi Has an Air of Success About Him,” San Francisco Examiner, May 2, 1996: C1.
29 Frank Blackman, “A’s Giambi Is the Man Who Would Be the Man,” San Francisco Examiner, March 28, 1999: C8.
30 Alfred Santasiere, “Yankees Magazine: The Greatest Lesson of All,” June 25, 2019. https://www.mlb.com/news/catching-up-with-mvp-jason-giambi (last accessed September 15, 2021).
31 Santasiere, “Yankees Magazine: The Greatest Lesson of All.”
32 Anthony McCarron, “Giambi Set to Earn Stripes,” Daily News, December 14, 2001: 109.
33 McCarron, “Giambi Set to Earn Stripes.”
34 Anthony McCarron, “Yanks’ Thin Man,” Daily News, February 24, 2004: 69.
36 Mark Fainaru-Wada and Lance Williams, “Giambi Admitted Taking Steroids,” SFGate, December 2, 2004, https://www.sfgate.com/sports/article/Giambi-admitted-taking-steroids-2631890.php (last accessed February 4, 2022).
37 Lisa Olson, “Giambi Disgrace Is a Family Affair,” Daily News, December 5, 2004: 76.
38 John Harper, “Jason’s Vegas Vacation Ends,” Daily News, December 5, 2004: 68.
39 Olson, “Giambi Disgrace Is a Family Affair.”
40 Sam Borden, “Yogi Says It Should Be Over for Giambi,” Daily News, December 10, 2004: 107.
41 Jose Canseco, Juiced: Wild Times, Rampant ‘Roids, Smash Hits, and How Baseball Got Big (New York, New York: Harper Collins, 2005):168.
42 Peter Botte, “Tino’s Back as a Backup Plan,” Daily News, January 1, 2005: 55.
43 Sam Borden, “Slugger Contrite but Won’t Say Why,” Daily News, February 11, 2005: 92.
44 Borden, “Slugger Contrite but Won’t Say Why.”
45 Sam Borden, “Yanks Applaud the Effort,” Daily News, February 22, 2005: 53.
46 Sam Borden, “Giambi Rebuilds Shattered Star,” Daily News, February 27, 2005: 58.
47 Sam Borden, “Giambi Balks at Columbus,” Daily News, May 11, 2005: 52.
48 Santasiere, “Yankees Magazine: The Greatest Lesson of All.”.
49 Bill Madden, “Yanks May Look to Jettison Jason,” Daily News, May 20, 2007: 58.
50 Lee Jenkins, “Jason Giambi Gets His Renegade Back On,” Sports Illustrated, March 2, 2009, https://vault.si.com/vault/2009/03/02/jason-giambi-gets-his-renegade-back-on (last accessed July 30, 2021).
51 Associated Press, “Looking Up,” Daily Sentinel (Grand Junction, Colorado), February 25, 2010: 1B.
52 Associated Press, “Giambi, Rockies Finalize Contract,” Daily Sentinel, January 29, 2010: 3B.
53 Associated Press, “The Giambino’s Return,” Daily Sentinel, May 26, 2011: 2B.
54 Santasiere, “Yankees Magazine: The Greatest Lesson of All.”
55 Troy E. Renck, “Giambi Interviews for Rockies’ Manager Job,” Daily Sentinel, October 20, 2012: 4B.
56 Gary Schatz, “Giambi Getting Shot, ‘Excited’ About Team,” Springfield (Ohio) News-Sun), February 25, 2014: C3.
57 Tom Withers, “Giambi Taking Final Cuts with Indians,” Modesto Bee, February 17, 2013: C3.
58 Sheldon Ocker, “Leader Giambi Filling Bill,” Akron (Ohio) Beacon Journal, June 2, 2013: C2.
59 Withers, “Giambi Taking Final Cuts with Indians.”
60 Marla Ridenour, “Taste of ‘G’ Keeps Getting Sweeter for Indians,” Akron Beacon Journal, September 26, 2013: C1.
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