He was known as “The Tall Tactician” and was baseball’s grand old gentleman for more than a generation. Statuesque, stately, and slim, he clutched a rolled-up scorecard as he sat or stood ramrod straight in the dugout, attired in a business suit rather than a uniform, a derby or bowler in place of a baseball cap. He carried himself with quiet dignity, and commanded the respect of friend and foe. Widely addressed by players and other officials as Mr. Mack, he and the Philadelphia Athletics were so closely linked for 50 years the team was often dubbed “the Mackmen.”
Connie Mack’s Hall of Fame career spanned 65 major-league seasons as a player, manager, team executive, and owner. He posted 3,731 wins, a mark that exceeds any other manager’s total by more than 1,000 victories. He guided the Athletics to nine American League championships and won five World Series titles in eight appearances. He was the first manager to win three World Series titles, and the first to win consecutive titles two times. The valleys were as low as the peaks were high – he also endured a major-league record 3,948 losses, and his team finished last in its league 17 times. He built his dynasties with rising young players, won championships with the stars he developed, and then sold off those stars when he could no longer afford them.
A journeyman catcher who offered more in the way of innovation and creativity than ability during an 11-year major-league playing career, Mack served as player-manager for the National League’s Pittsburgh (the city was actually known as “Pittsburg” from 1890 to 1911) Pirates for three seasons during the rollicking 1890’s, and then for four seasons for the Milwaukee Brewers of the Western League, which became the American League in 1900. In 1901, when the circuit declared it was a major league and began to invade Eastern cities, A.L. President Ban Johnson asked Mack to establish the Philadelphia Athletics. Mack managed the team through 1950, and was a team owner for the franchise’s entire 54-year existence.
In the early years of the Athletics, Mack skippered some of the Deadball Era’s best teams, winning six A.L. pennants and three World Series in the league’s first 14 years, primarily with players he discovered on school grounds and sandlots and developed into stars. Faced with financial difficulties because of the onset of World War I and competition for players from the fledgling Federal League, he dismantled his dynasty and endured a decade of miserable finishes. As he advanced into his sixties, many sportswriters and fans suggested the game had passed him by. But he adjusted to the times, opened his checkbook to purchase rising stars from minor-league teams, and built a second dynasty by the end of the Roaring Twenties.
That team won three straight A.L. championships (1929-31) and a pair of World Series titles, but suffered declining attendance as the Great Depression devastated Pennsylvania’s economy. A pragmatic businessman with no other streams of income other than his ball club, Mack felt forced to sell off his stars to more solvent teams. Once again, the Athletics tumbled to the bottom of the A.L. standings, where they would hover for most of the rest of their stay in Philadelphia.
He believed that he would eventually build another winner, and took pride in his ability to discover and develop talented young players. “No other manager in the history of the game ever handled more young players and brought more of them to stardom and to fortune,” the New York Times observed in Mack’s obituary. “But it is probable that he will be best remembered for his sensational scrapping of championship machines…”1
Mack’s enduring legacy is his longevity and his civility. He spent a remarkable 71 years in Organized Baseball, and by the time he left the game, he was a living legend, revered by the public and by those inside the game. Contrary to popular belief, the distinguished old gentleman did swear, and he did yell at his players, but rarely, and usually behind closed doors. He addressed his players by their proper given names; they generally called him “Mr. Mack.”
Sabermatrician and baseball historian Bill James related a story about Mack and Robert “Lefty” Grove, his star pitcher during the glory years of the late 1920s and early 1930s:
Grove was a loudmouth and a hot-head. His manager, Connie Mack, was a quiet, soft-spoken man who didn’t drink, didn’t smoke, swear, or raise his voice. In 1932, after a tough defeat, Grove was in the clubhouse raising Cain, throwing chairs, screaming at people and menacing lockers. Finally, Connie Mack came out to try to quiet him down. Grove was having none of it. “The hell with you, Mack,” he screamed. “To hell with you.” To which Mack responded quietly, as Grove stormed off to the shower, “And to hell with you too, Robert.”2
Cornelius McGillicuddy was born on December 22, 1862, in East Brookfield, Massachusetts, the third of seven children of Irish immigrants Michael and Mary McKillop McGillicuddy. He arrived one week after Robert E. Lee defeated Union forces at the Battle of Fredericksburg (Virginia), and six months before the Battle of Gettysburg. At the time, his father, who had worked in cotton mills and shoe factories before the war, was serving in the 51st Massachusetts Infantry, and did not return home until July 1863. As was true of many McGillicuddys, the family was known by Mack, except in legal documents.
Connie, a tall, thin boy dubbed “Slats” by his friends, began to play baseball at an early age. He dropped out of school at the age of 14, worked in a local shoe factory, and became the catcher and captain for the town team. At age 21, he decided that his future was in baseball and embarked on a minor-league career. He debuted at Meriden in the Connecticut State League in 1884. In 1885, he played one game for Newark in the Eastern League; then joined Hartford in the North East Connecticut League. In 1886, Mack caught 69 games for Hartford, which had moved up in class to join the Eastern League.
After the Hartford season ended, the Washington franchise in the National League purchased Mack and three others players for $3,500. The 6′ 2 1/2″, 150-lb right-handed batting beanpole catcher made his big-league debut two days later, on Saturday, September 11, 1886, in a 4-3 win over the Philadelphia Phillies before 1,500 fans at Washington’s Swampoodle Grounds. Although the Nationals won 13 of 26 games the rest of the way – including four by forfeit – they still finished with the worst record in the eight-team N.L. at 28-92. Over ten games, Mack collected 13 hits in 36 at-bats, recorded 88 bare-handed putouts and 22 assists, and was charged with five errors and 10 passed balls.
From 1887 to 1889, Mack was Washington’s regular backstop, playing an occasional game at first base, second base, in the outfield, and even one at shortstop. He batted .201 in 1887 and just .187 the next year, though he did smack a career-high three home runs and steal 31 bases. He batted .293 in 1889, when the Nationals again slid back into the cellar after a seventh-place finish in 1888.
Mack was a leader in the players’ rebellion against the N.L.’s salary cap and reserve clause that led to the formation of the Players League in 1890. He invested his savings of $500 in the Buffalo club and caught 123 games for the Bisons, who finished last in the eight-team loop. When the P.L. collapsed after one season, Mack signed with Pittsburgh in the National League.
He spent the next six seasons in the Smokey City. While there, his wife of five years, Margaret Hogan, died in 1892, leaving him with three infant children. He did not remarry until 1910, when he and Katherine Hallahan began his second family, four girls and a boy.
On the field, he was the N.L.’s leader in catcher fielding percentage in 1891 and 1892. “By that time he had become known as a smart catcher and a reliable batsman in the pinches, though he never was a heavy hitter,” the New York Times remembered.3 Though not highly skilled, he was creative and competitive. He was one of the first major-league catchers to move up from the backstop to just behind the batter, and among the first to block the plate.
He was also cunning, though he cultivated a clean-cut image. He mimicked the sound of a foul tip and was so proficient at catching them that the N.L. changed its rule so that a batter was no longer out if the catcher snagged a foul tip with fewer than two strikes. In 1893, he intentionally dropped a popup and turned it into a triple play. 4 He physically disrupted batters by grabbing or tipping their bats as they swung, and mentally disturbed them by pointing out a flaw or weakness. “Since his minor league days, Connie Mack had continued to work on perfecting the arts of distracting chatter, quick pitches, and bat tipping,” Mack biographer Norman Macht wrote, adding that Mack would feign innocence after the act.5 Hall of Fame catcher and manager Wilbert Robinson remembered, that “Mack never was mean like some of the catchers of the day. But he kept up a string of chatter behind the plate, and if you had any soft spot, Connie would find it. He could do and say things that got more under your skin than the cuss words used by other catchers.”6
Though he believed in fair play, Mack was able to take pride in his gamesmanship in an era when gaining an edge was a valued characteristic. “Farmer Weaver was a catcher-outfielder for Louisville. I tipped his bat several times when he had two strikes on him one year, and each time the umpire called him out. He got even, though. One time there were two strikes on him and he swung as the pitch was coming in. But he didn’t swing at the ball. He swung right at my wrists. Sometimes I think I can still feel the pain. I’ll tell you I didn’t tip his bat again. No, sir, not until the last game of the season and Weaver was at bat for the last time. When he had two strikes, I tipped his bat again and got away with it.” 7
Mack was spiked and suffered an ankle injury during the 1893 season while blocking the plate against the Boston Beaneaters’ Herman Long. “I was never the same player after that,” Mack later told sports writer Fred Lieb. “I was slower on the bases and couldn’t stoop as well behind the plate. It would catch me in the calf, where I had been spiked.” 8 He caught 70 games in 1894. The Pirates started the season with a 53-55-2 record before Al Buckenberger was dismissed and Mack was named manager at the age of 32. On September 3, the Tall Tactician earned the first of his record-setting 3,731 managerial wins in a 22-1 walloping of his old team, Washington, in a home game at Exposition Park. The next day, Mack tasted the first of 3,948 losses in a road game at the Polo Grounds.
“He was a new type of manager,” The New York Times observed at the time Mack’s passing. “The old-time leaders ruled by force, often thrashing players who disobeyed orders on the field or broke club rules off the field. One of the kindest and most soft-spoken of men, he always insisted that he could get better results by kindness. He never humiliated a player by public criticism. No one ever heard him scold a man in the most trying times of his many pennant fights.”9
Pittsburgh posted a 12-10 record the rest of the way and remained in seventh place among the 12 teams in the expanded N.L. Never the same after the 1893 injury, Mack appeared in just 14 games as a player in 1895, and though the Pirates finished seventh again, they improved to 71-61-3 and even led the league briefly in August. But they faded quickly, and on September 6 at the Polo Grounds, the frustrated Mack argued a call at second base, and veteran umpire Hank O’Day tossed him out of the game, the only official ejection of the Tall Tactician’s long career. After being thrown out of the game, Mack refused to leave the field. O’Day asked a New York City policeman to remove him, but Mack shook him off and didn’t leave until other officers arrived at the scene. He later said he was embarrassed by the incident. Though extremely passionate and highly competitive, the pragmatic Mack managed to maintain his composure through the rest of his career, because he thought it best for his team.
Mack appeared in 33 games in 1896, 28 of them at first base, and participated in his final major league contest as a player on August 29, 1896 at the age of 33. The Pirates climbed to sixth place in 1896 with a 66-63-2 record, but disagreements with the team’s owners led to Mack’s dismissal.
Mack moved on to Milwaukee, and became manager and 25 percent owner of the city’s Western League franchise. Majority owner Henry Killilea told the Tall Tactician, “You’re in charge. Handle the club as if it belonged to you. Engage the players you think will strengthen the team without consulting any directors of the club.” 10
Mack skippered the Brewers for four seasons. A player-manager during the first three, he took his last turn in the field on September 4, 1899. “Once he gave up playing,” baseball historian Charles C. Alexander observed, “Mack had managed from the bench in street clothes. His high starched collar was basic male attire at the turn of the century, but many years later, long after it had become unfashionable, he would still be wearing one.”11 He would also carry a scorecard for the remainder of his career, waving it to send signals to his players on the field. He relied on his experience and his understanding of the skills of both his players and opponent players to position his fielders.
Concerned with both wins and the box office receipts, Mack assembled and developed a competitive squad that included a talented but mercurial pitcher, Rube Waddell. In 1900, when league president Ban Johnson transformed the Western League into the American League, the Brewers finished second. When he invaded the eastern cities to compete directly with the N.L., Johnson tabbed Mack to establish the Philadelphia franchise that would compete against the Phillies in the nation’s third-largest city.
Johnson turned to Charles Somers, the Cleveland owner who had bankrolled several of the other A.L. entries, to finance the Philadelphia franchise until local ownership could be arranged, and directed Mack to Ben Shibe. Shibe owned the A.J. Reach Company, which manufactured baseball equipment, and a minority share of the rival Phillies. Mack persuaded Shibe to buy 50 percent of the A.L. franchise from Somers, promising Shibe that Reach would become the sole provider of baseballs for the American League. Mack obtained 25 percent of the franchise himself, and two Philadelphia sports writers, Frank Hough and Sam Jones, bought the remaining 25 percent, which they sold to Mack in 1912.
The agreement between Shibe and Mack was cemented with a handshake, and wasn’t put on paper until 1902. Shibe served as team president and handled the team’s business affairs; Mack served as treasurer, and managed baseball matters. The agreement endured through Shibe’s death in 1922, after which Mack worked in partnership with Shibe’s sons Tom and John, until their deaths in the 1930’s, when Mack became the majority shareholder.
With the partnership in place, Mack needed a place to play and players to play there. He solved the first problem by leasing a vacant lot and commissioning construction of Columbia Park. To solve his second problem, Mack turned his attention to his cross-town rivals. Like other American League executives, Mack sought to stock his team from the best available talent source, the National League. With a salary offer of $4,000, Mack lured Napoleon (King Larry) Lajoie away from the Phillies, and signed pitchers Chick Fraser, Bill Bernhard, and Wiley Piatt.
Mack also signed young New York Giants pitcher Christy Mathewson, but Matty jumped back to the Giants. Although Mack accused Mathewson of reneging on his contract, he later referred to Matty as the greatest pitcher ever. The two crossed paths several times during the next two decades.
Although he didn’t land Mathewson, Mack did acquire players who made an impact in the A.L.’s inaugural season of 1901. Lajoie was the American League’s best player, leading the league in batting average (.422), slugging percentage, runs, doubles (48), home runs (14), and RBIs (125). Fraser won 20 games, Bernhard 17, and a 25-year old lefty, Eddie Plank, also won 17. Mack also added Harry Davis, Socks Seybold, and Lave Cross to the fold. However, the Athletics managed just a 74-62 record and finished fourth in the American League, nine games behind Clark Griffith’s Chicago White Sox, and just ahead of John McGraw’s fifth-place Baltimore Orioles.
Mack once again set his sights on the Phillies, who had finished second in the N.L. This time, he signed away outfielder Elmer Flick, pitcher Bill Duggleby, and shortstop Monte Cross. But before the 1902 season started, the Athletics suffered a severe setback when the Pennsylvania Supreme Court ruled that Lajoie, Fraser, and Bernhard could not play for any team other than the Phillies. The ruling, which was valid only in Pennsylvania, also affected the three new jumpers. Fraser complied with the order, but Mack made an agreement with Somers, and Lajoie, Flick, and Bernhard chose to sign with Cleveland, staying out of Pennsylvania when the Indians played there, which allowed them to stay in the American League.
With half his team pulled out from under him on opening day, Mack had to rebuild in a hurry. He acquired catcher Osee Schrecongost from Cleveland, picked up second baseman Danny Murphy from Norwich, Connecticut, and mercurial lefthander Rube Waddell, who he had managed in Milwaukee, from the California League. Waddell joined the A’s on June 26 and posted a 24-7 record with a 2.05 earned run average and 210 strikeouts the rest of the way. Plank, a 20-game winner for the first time, and Seybold, who hit 16 home runs, an American League record that stood until Babe Ruth hit 29 in 1919, led the Athletics to their first AL pennant.
The flag was the first for the City of Brotherly Love since 1883, and helped the Mackmen win the battle of the box office. The Athletics drew 420,078 to Columbia Park, more than double what they had drawn during their inaugural season, while the Phillies, jilted by the three men who would win the new league’s first five batting championships (Lajoie 01-03-04, Ed Delahanty 02, and Flick 05), attracted just 112,066 to the Baker Bowl. The Mackmen would outperform and outdraw the Phillies for the next 13 years.
N.L. champion Pittsburgh owner Barney Dreyfuss declined an opportunity to play in what would have been the first “modern” World Series, and manager John McGraw, who had jumped from the A.L.’s Baltimore Orioles to the N.L.’s New York Giants during the season derisively labeled the Athletics “a White Elephant,” a term generally used to describe an ornate, impractical, and burdensome possession. Rather than consider it an insult, Mack immediately adopted the pachyderm as the team’s symbol, and attached a white elephant patch to the Athletic uniforms from 1903 to 1928.
The two leagues reached a “peace agreement” in January 1903, which effectively ended the player raiding between the two leagues. The Mackmen finished second that season, as Boston earned the right to play in the first modern World Series. Philadelphia finished 14 ½ games behind despite 20-win seasons by Plank and Waddell, and 17 from newcomer Chief Bender. The Athletics closed the gap to 12 ½ games back in 1904 but finished fifth despite 26 wins from both Plank and Waddell.
With largely the same team, the Athletics outdistanced the Chicago White Sox by two games in 1905. Waddell won 26, Plank won 25, youngster Andy Coakley won 20, and Bender added 16. In addition to the strong pitching, the Athletics led the American League in hitting and runs scored.
As fate would have it, the Mackmen faced the Giants and Mathewson in the World Series and as luck would have it, the Athletics were without Waddell, who had been injured. Mathewson tossed three shutouts, including a six-hitter in Game Five to wrap up the series, and McGraw, who had clad his squad in new black uniforms, earned his first World Championship. The Athletics scored just three runs in the series, all in Chief Bender’s 3-0 Game Two win.
The A’s slipped to fourth in 1906, finished 1½ games behind Ty Cobb’s Tigers in 1907 and a distant sixth in 1908. But during that season, Mack began to build his first dynasty, providing playing time for 21-year old second baseman Eddie Collins, 21-year old shortstop Eddie Joost in 1954.
Mack stayed on as team president, though his sons took on more and more of the duties as he aged. Roy and Earle (his sons from his first marriage) had acquired nearly 80 percent of the franchise’s stock by August, 1950, including shares from Connie Mack, Jr., (his son from his second marriage) after considerable squabbling among the children from the two marriages (the turmoil had resulted in a temporary separation from his second wife, Katherine in 1946-47). 16 To acquire the shares, Roy and Earle heavily mortgaged the club through the Connecticut General Life Insurance, and the debt-laden club once again faced financial difficulty as attendance continued to fall. “Toward the end he was old and sick and saddened, a figure of forlorn dignity bewildered by the bickering around him as the baseball monument that he had built crumbled away,” veteran sportswriter Red Smith wrote.17
Though his legacy and career winning percentage had been eroded by the string of last place finishes, he was revered by those in the game, and the public. Shibe Park was renamed “Connie Mack Stadium” in 1953 and continued to house both the Athletics and the Phillies, who were still winning the battle of the box office between the two. The other A.L. owners, unhappy about their share of the low gates at Philadelphia – just 362,111 in 1953 and a paltry 304,666 in 1954 – urged the Macks to sell or move the team.
The Macks resisted, but Roy and Earle were pressured by the New York owners to sell the team to Arnold Johnson, a Chicago vending machine magnate who owned the Yankees farm team in Kansas City. When Earle and Roy finally agreed to sell, the other AL owners unanimously voted to accept the deal. Upon hearing the news that the Athletics would move away from Philadelphia, the 91-year old Connie Mack collapsed.
He bounced back and endured the summer of 1955, his first outside of organized baseball since he embarked on his playing career in 1884. In early October, he fell and suffered a hip fracture that required surgery and was using a wheelchair when he celebrated his 93rd birthday on December 22. In early February, he fell ill while at his daughter’s house.
Connie Mack died in Philadelphia on February 8, 1956, at the age of 93 “of old age and complications from hip surgery.” 18 Hundreds of fans, friends, former players, and baseball executives turned out for the funeral at his St. Bridget’s, his parish church. He was buried at Holy Sepulchre Catholic Cemetery in Philadelphia. He was survived by Katherine, four daughters, three sons, and 24 grandchildren and great-grandchildren. His grandson, Connie Mack III, the son of Connie Mack, Jr., served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1983 to 1989, and represented Florida in the U.S. Senate from 1989 to 2001. His son, Connie Mack, IV, also served Florida in the U.S. House of Representatives, from 2005 to 2013.
Mack received many honors during his long career. He was proudest of the Bok Award, which was presented to him for his service to the city of Philadelphia in 1929. The honor had always gone to someone prominent in the arts or professions. In 1941, the City of Philadelphia and State of Pennsylvania both declared May 17 “Connie Mack Day.”
In December 1937, 13 years before he retired as the Athletics manager, Mack was selected for induction into Baseball’s Hall of Fame, along with his old nemesis, McGraw, and old ally, Ban Johnson. In June 1939, Mack was honored at the dedication of the Hall of Fame Museum at Cooperstown. His plaque there called him “Mr. Baseball.”
Decades after both he and his beloved Athletics departed, The City of Brotherly Love continues to honor the Mackmen legacy. Mack was posthumously inducted into the Philadelphia Sports Hall of Fame in 2004, and was among the inaugural group selected for the Philadelphia Baseball Wall of Fame. The Wall stood inside Veterans Stadium, where the Phillies had moved when they left Connie Mack Park after the 1970 season, until 2004, when they moved into Citizen’s Bank Park. There, a new Wall includes only Phillies contributors, and the names of the Athletics’ honorees now appear on the base of a life-sized statue of Connie Mack, attired in a business suit, waving his rolled up scorecard, outside the ballpark. It is a fitting tribute to the man who meant so much to baseball in Philadelphia.
Charles C. Alexander. John McGraw. New York: Viking Penguin Books, 1988.
Charles C. Alexander. Ty Cobb. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Ted Davis. Connie Mack: A Life in Baseball. Lincoln, NE, Writers Club Press, 2000.
Donald Dewey and Nicholas Acocella. The New Biographical History of Baseball, Chicago, Triumph Books, 2002
Steve Goldman, ed. It Ain’t Over ‘Til It’s Over, The Baseball Prospectus Pennant Race Book. Philadelphia: Basic Books, 2007.
Donald Honig. The American League, An Illustrated History. New York: Crown Publishers, 1987.
Bill James and John Dewan, Neil Munro, Don Zminda, Jim Callis. All Time Baseball Sourcebook. Skokie, IL, STATS, Inc., 1998.
Bill James. The New Bill James Historical Abstract, New York: Free Press, 2001.
Bill James. The Bill James Guide to Baseball Managers, New York: Scribner, 1997
William C. Kashatus. Connie Mack’s ’29 Triumph. Jefferson, NC, McFarland and Company, Inc., 1999.
William C. Kashatus. Money Pitcher, Chief Bender and the Tragedy of American Indian Assimilation, College Station: Penn State Press, 2006
William C. Kashatus. The Philadelphia Athletics. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2002.
Jonah Keri, ed. Baseball Between the Numbers, Why Everything You Know About the Game is Wrong. Philadelphia: Basic Books, 2006.
Rick Huhn. Eddie Collins, A Baseball Biography. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company, Inc., 2008.
Frederick Lieb. Connie Mack. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1945.
Frederick Lieb. Baseball As I Have Known It. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1977.
Philip Lowry. Green Cathedrals, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Press, 1992.
Norman Macht. Connie Mack and the Early Years of Baseball. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2007.
Norman Macht. Connie Mack, The Turbulent and Triumphant Years, 1915-1931. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2012.
Norman Macht. “Cornelius McGillicuddy (Connie Mack).” Baseball’s First Stars. Cleveland: Society for American Baseball Research, 1996.
Connie Mack. My 66 Years in the Big Leagues, The Great Story of America’s National Game. Philadelphia: Universal House, 1950.
Connie Mack. From Sandlot to Big League, Connie Mack’s Baseball Book. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1960.
Tom Meany. Baseball’s Greatest Teams. New York: A.S.Barnes & Company, 1949.
David S. Neft and Richard M. Cohen. The World Series: Complete Play By Play of Every Game 1903-1989. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1989.
David S. Neft and Richard M. Cohen. The Sports Encyclopedia: Baseball, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987.
Rob Neyer and Eddie Epstein. Baseball Dynasties: The Greatest Teams of All Time. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2000.
Lawrence S. Ritter. Lost Ballparks. New York: Penguin Books, 1992.
Lawrence S. Ritter. The Glory of Their Times. New York: William Morrow, 1992.
Jerome C. Romanowski. The Mackmen. Camden, NJ: Graphic Press, 1979.
Robert Schmuhl. Making Words Dance: Reflections on Red Smith, Journalism, and Writing. Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2010.
Barry Sparks. Frank “Home Run” Baker: Hall of Famer and World Series Hero. Jefferson, NC, McFarland and Company, 2006.
Alfred H. Spink. The National Game. 2nd ed. Writing Baseball Series Edition. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Press, 2000.
Fred Stein. And the Skipper Bats Cleanup: A History of the Baseball Player-Manager, with 42 Biographies of Men Who Filled the Dual Role: Jefferson, NC, McFarland & Company, Inc. Publishing, 2002.
Tom Swift. Chief Bender’s Burden, The Silent Struggle of a Baseball Star, Lincoln, NE, Nebraska Press, 2008.
Robert L. Tiemann and Mark Rucker, eds. Nineteenth Century Stars. Kansas City, MO: Society for American Baseball Research, 1989. Republished 2012.
Robert D. Warrington. “Departure Without Dignity: The Athletics Leave Philadelphia.” Baseball Research Journal. 39 (Fall 2010), 95-113.
Philadelphia Athletics Historical Society’s Official Website
National Baseball Hall of Fame website
Heritagequest online census
Notes from the Shadows of Cooperstown
Philadelphia Inquirer, various dates.
New York Times, Feb. 9, 1956.
1 “Connie Mack, Mr. Baseball, Dies in Philadelphia at the Age of 93,” New York Times, Feb. 9, 1956, 1, 36.
2 Bill James, The New Bill James Historical Abstract (New York: Free Press, 2001), 848.
3 The New York Times, Feb. 9, 1956, 1, 36.
4 Norman Macht, Connie Mack and the Early Years of Baseball (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2007), 97-98.
5 Macht, 99-100.
6 Macht, 99-100.
7 Macht, 100.
8 Frederick Lieb, Connie Mack (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1945), 40.
9 The New York Times, Feb. 9, 1956, 1, 36.
10 Macht, 131.
11 Charles C. Alexander, John McGraw (New York: Viking Penguin Books, 1988), 116-117.
12 Connie Mack. My 66 Years in the Big Leagues, The Great Story of America’s National Game (Philadelphia: Universal House, 1950), 35-36. According to Philadelphia Athletics historian Bob Warrington, “Dick Armstrong,” the Athletics’ director of public relations when the book was published, acknowledged years later that he was the ghostwriter of Mack’s ‘autobiography.’ Mack, struggling with mental deterioration by 1950, certainly needed considerable assistance in telling the story of his life. Whether Mack actually uttered these words or they sprung from the fertile mind of Armstrong is open to question.” “Departure Without Dignity: The Athletics Leave Philadelphia,” Baseball Research Journal, 39 (Fall 2010), 113.
13 Mack, 35-36.
14 Mack, 46-48.
15 William C. Kashatus, The Philadelphia Athletics (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing 2002), 90.
16 Robert D. Warrington, “Departure Without Dignity: The Athletics Leave Philadelphia, Baseball Research Journal, 39, (Fall 2010), 113.
17 Robert Schmuhl, Making Words Dance: Reflections on Red Smith, Journalism, and Writing (Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel Publishing 2010), xxiii.
18 Ted Davis, Connie Mack: A Life in Baseball (Lincoln, NE: Writers Club Press, 2000), 215.