If a player collects six hits in his first day in the majors and no one sees or reads about it, did it still happen? Unfortunately, rookie first baseman Guy Sturdy’s stellar doubleheader debut on September 30, 1927, for the seventh-place St. Louis Browns occurred on their last home date of the season, and one day after a tornado ripped through the city. Thus, only 200 fans witnessed the feat. Also, newspaper sports headlines focused on another event from the same day: Babe Ruth’s historic 60th home run.
Touted as a potential first baseman replacement for George Sisler in 1928, Sturdy instead appeared as a pinch-hitter an American League-leading 53 times before returning to the minors. Sturdy collected over 2,500 hits and 200 home runs over a nearly 20-year minor league playing career, achieving highs of 67 steals in 1922 and 49 homers in 1926. He eventually became a fiery minor league manager.
Guy Amos Sturdy1 was born on August 7, 1899, in Sherman, Texas, the fifth of six children born to John Sturdy, a Missouri-born farmer, and Betty “Lizzie” Phelps Sturdy, a Kentucky native. The Sturdys lived in Collin County, near Llano, at the turn of the century. Two older brothers and Guy all worked on their family farm as laborers as of the 1910 census. On July 27, 1918, 18-year-old Guy married sweetheart Marie “Elsie” Ferguson, also 18 years old and from Sherman. Guy and Elsie welcomed sons Guy W. in 1919 and John in 1922, then daughter Barbara in 1932. His September 1918 draft registration listed the “tall and slender” Sturdy as a local tailor in Sherman. He played for a local amateur Katy, Texas ball team.
The 1920 census showed Guy Sturdy as an insurance agent, with Guy, Elsie, and Guy Jr. listed as boarders in Sherman. In May, the lefty throwing and swinging Sturdy began his professional baseball career with the Gorman Buddies of the newly organized Class D West Texas League (dubbed the “Oil Belt” League), starring for manager Clarence “Pop Boy” Smith.2 The franchise moved to Sweetwater in early August. The 20-year-old Sturdy, measuring 6’0” and weighing 180 pounds, hit .303 in 89 games, before reportedly being sold in August to the Dallas Submarines of the Class B Texas League for post-season delivery.3 That deal fell through, however, and Sturdy was later purchased by the Little Rock Travelers of the Class A Southern Association.4
Sturdy impressed during Little Rock’s spring training in 1921 but was farmed out to the Chickasha (Oklahoma) Chicks of the Class D Western Association.5 Sturdy belted six home runs in his first ten games and hit .313 on the season for the Chicks.6 The “rangy first baseman” scored the winning run in support of starting pitcher Mike Cvengros as Chickasha beat Fort Smith four games to three to take the Western Association flag.7 Regrettably, owner Ray Winder folded the franchise after the season.
For 1922, Sturdy returned to Little Rock,8 but was again sent down during camp, this time to the new Joplin (Missouri) Miners squad, still in the Western Association (now classified as Class C). In April, Sturdy’s and manager/catcher Gabby Street’s abusive language caused Joplin to forfeit a game against Fort Smith, the last straw being when Sturdy “applied an unprintable adjective to the umpires.”9 Sturdy and Street were each suspended for five games.10 Still, a Joplin writer proclaimed: “give us a nine of Sturdys full of spark and vinegar.”11 Sturdy broke Hooks Cotter of Springfield’s league record with a 25-game hitting streak from May 28-June 20.12 He slumped later in the season but still hit .335 in 1922 for the pennant-winning Joplin, with a league-leading 67 stolen bases.13 Joplin beat Enid in five games in the championship series,14 then defeated Sapulpa, winners of the Southwestern League, in another postseason matchup.15 A local paper claimed that Sturdy, “Joplin’s first baseman, is the Willie Keeler of the Miners,” as “there is no telling just where or how he’ll hit.”16
Sturdy started 1923, yet again, with Little Rock but was released to Joplin in late May.17 He hit .332 in 1923 for Joplin with 25 stolen bases. Sturdy was arrested in August after a fight with an Okmulgee Democrat sportswriter who had written disparaging comments about him.18 Remaining in the WA for 1924, but moving to the Muskogee (Oklahoma) Athletics, Sturdy hit .333 with 25 home runs. His 218 hits led the team, and his 45 stolen bases paced the league.19 Muskogee, after winning league, sold Sturdy to the Tulsa Oilers of the Class A Western League in September for $2,000.20
During Tulsa’s 1925 camp in Corsicana, Texas, Sturdy broke his right leg and dislocated his ankle while sliding into second base in an exhibition game.21 The Sporting News reported that Sturdy “looks like a sensation at the initial sack, but unfortunately his injured leg will keep him out of the game for three more weeks.”22 Soon after his return in mid-June, Tulsa shipped Sturdy to Muskogee, reuniting him with manager Street. Sturdy hit .363 in 44 games, before making a U-turn back to Tulsa in early August.23 Sturdy hit .346 in 65 late-season games for the Oilers. His two home runs on the season’s final day in Denver kept the home Bears from tying Des Moines for the league pennant.24
Sturdy produced an outstanding year for Tulsa in ’26, belting 49 home runs, breaking Royce Washburn’s league record of 48 set in 1924, while adding 54 doubles and driving in a whopping 171 runs.25 The “temperamental, tempestuous and tremendous hitter for the Tulsa Oilers”26 even bested the majors leader, Babe Ruth, by two round-trippers.27 Sturdy scored a run in 16 straight games,28 led the league with 163 runs scored,29 and was “generally regarded as the most valuable player in the league.”30 Over the winter, he played for the Long Beach (California) Shell Oil team in the southern California Professional Winter League with many Pacific Coast Leaguers.31 Sturdy collected four hits and scored both runs off Bullet Rogan of Biz Mackey’s Philadelphia Elite Giants in a December 2-1 win.32 In another contest against the same Elite Giants, Sturdy got “abusive” with an umpire and was ejected, and “coming back onto the diamond he took a hard punch at (umpire) Beck who dodged receiving a glancing blow.”33
Before the 1927 season, the St. Louis Browns announced they had acquired Sturdy from Tulsa, a de facto Browns farm team. Sturdy collected four hits in a spring training intersquad game in March,34 but was soon sent back to the Oilers. Sturdy hit .374 on the season, with 23 home runs, good for second in the league, and “his handling of bad throws (was) said to be remarkable.”35 Tulsa won the Western League then fell to Earl Caldwell and the Waco Cubs, runners-up in the Texas League, in a postseason series. Immediately after, the Browns promoted Sturdy, Red Kress, Stew Bolen and George Blaeholder.36
Sturdy made his major league debut on September 30 at Sportsman’s Park as the Browns, in their last home date of the season and after two weather postponements, hosted the Cleveland Indians. Only 200 fans attended “as a result of the inclement weather and yesterday’s disaster,” a tornado that hit Sportsman’s Park the day prior.37 Sturdy, giving first baseman George Sisler a rest, collected three singles in the opener, followed by three more singles with two runs scored in the nightcap of the split. The St. Louis Star and Times commented that “Guy Sturdy hit and fielded in fine style.”38 Sturdy’s grand debut, however, was overshadowed on the sports pages, as legend Babe Ruth swatted his record 60th home run the same afternoon.
Sturdy started in another doubleheader the next day, the penultimate day of the Browns’ season, in Chicago against the White Sox, collecting one hit in seven at-bats. He had two hits, including a double, in the final game of the season, ending up a robust 9-for-21 (.429) over the three days, without a strikeout.
After the Browns sold Sisler to the Washington Senators in the off-season, reports labeled the task of replacing him as a battle between Sturdy and Lu Blue, obtained in a trade with the Detroit Tigers.39 Browns skipper Dan Howley, however, appeared “unwilling to place his endorsement on Guy Sturdy.”40 Sturdy regrettably hurt his back late in spring training of 1928 and lost the first base competition to Blue, but still broke camp with the Browns.41 Sturdy collected his only major-league home run on a pinch-hit two-run shot on April 19 off Detroit’s Ken Holloway, and his only other career double off Philadelphia’s Rube Walberg on May 11. The next day, Sturdy played the final three innings at first base in a blowout 15-2 loss to the Boston Red Sox, remarkably his only fielding appearance of the season. Sturdy collected 53 pinch-hitting appearances, pacing the American League with 44 pinch at-bats and 10 pinch hits,42 while striking out only four times. Sturdy was sent under option to the Milwaukee Brewers of the Class AA American Association in late August to replace injured initial sacker Ivy Griffin,43 then sold to the Birmingham Barons of the Class A Southern Association after the season.44
For the Barons in 1929, Sturdy ended second in the circuit with 33 stolen bases,45 hit .297, and led the league both with 21 triples and in fielding percentage at .988.46 Even opposing Memphis manager Doc Prothro claimed Sturdy as “invaluable” at first base, saving “his mates numerous errors by grabbing wild tosses.”47 Birmingham won the Southern League pennant, then bested the Dallas Steers in the Dixie Series for supremacy of the South, with Sturdy batting leadoff and stealing home in the clincher.48
Returning to Birmingham for 1930, Sturdy hit .317. He missed only one game in his two years with the Barons. Sturdy was voted “most popular Baron” of the year in September and presented with a Hamilton wristwatch.49 In December, he was sold to the Houston Buffaloes of the Class A Texas League.50
Sturdy roomed with none other than Dizzy Dean during his year in Houston. Sturdy, the “handsome first-sacker” was considered “one of the best ‘barbers’ or talkers in minor league baseball,” and thus perfectly matched with Dean.51 The Fort Worth Star-Telegram claimed that, regarding Sturdy, there “never in the history of the league has there been a better receiver of thrown balls than he – and few men who displayed a more fiery temper.”52 Houston won the league pennant, but fell to Sturdy’s old Birmingham squad in the Dixie Series.
Houston sold Sturdy after the 1931 season to New Orleans, but he refused two contracts offered by the Pelicans at a lower salary than he had received the previous season.53 Sturdy finally consented to the lower rate, then hit .364 through mid-July before slumping in the summer to end with a .324 mark. He was suspended for three days in September and fined $20 by league president John Martin for throwing dirt in the face of umpire Cotton Knaupp.54
New Orleans sold Sturdy to the San Antonio Bronchos in 1933. In May, cut by the Bronchos, he re-joined Little Rock. Within a month, the Travelers named him acting manager.55 A month later, Sturdy was placed on indefinite suspension after arguing with substitute umpire Hank DeBerry. Martin stayed said suspension, however, reasoning that Little Rock “would be crippled too severely by such penalty.”56 Little Rock finished in the cellar. Nonetheless, The Sporting News reported that offseason that Sturdy had won seven pennants in his 14 years of pro ball.57
In November, Little Rock traded one Guy for another: Sturdy to the Baltimore Orioles of the Class AA International League for pitcher Cantrell.58 Sturdy was assigned player-manager of the Orioles farm team, the Johnstown (Pennsylvania) Johnnies of the Class C Middle Atlantic League.59 He had a young Eddie Mayo at third base for Johnstown. On July 4, Sturdy was promoted to lead the flailing Orioles, and brought Mayo with him.60 The team was 18-53 (.254) when Sturdy took over, and he guided them at least to an improved 53-99 mark, with a record of 35-46 (.432) attributed to him. The Baltimore Evening Sun reported “there can be no question that Guy Sturdy has taken the badly organized Orioles and put some scrap and spirit in them”61 and that “Sturdy’s pepper and enthusiasm helped rejuvenate a low-spirited outfit.”62
In the off-season, Sturdy instructed at the Ray Doan All Star Baseball School in Hot Springs, Arkansas, along with the likes of Dizzy Dean, Rogers Hornsby, and George Sisler. Sturdy listed his residence during this time as Van Alstyne in Grayson County, Texas.
In his second full season with Baltimore, Sturdy, while no longer on the active roster, steered the Orioles to the 1936 playoffs and was awarded a new car and multiple suits before the playoffs.63 They finished in fourth place, but beat second-place Rochester in the semifinals before falling to Buffalo. He received credit while with Baltimore for developing not only Mayo but young left-handed pitcher Cliff Melton as well.
However, during the next winter, infielder Max Bishop, a 1936 late-season addition to Baltimore, claimed Sturdy had mismanaged the Orioles. Bishop sought Sturdy’s job, even solicited a local sportswriter’s assistance in the coup,64 before attacking Sturdy at a Knights of Columbus meeting when Bishop did not receive the post.65 Commissioner Landis was forced to get involved, holding a hearing down in Florida, to quell the situation. Unfortunately, Baltimore lost its first ten games in 1937, tying the 1904 Montreal Royals for the most losses to start a season.66 With a 4-18 record, Sturdy was fired in mid-May, yet stayed in the organization as a scout.67 Sturdy also had a clause in his contract awarding him a bonus if a certain attendance threshold was met. The Orioles recovered and made the IL playoffs, while attendance shot up. When the threshold was met, Sturdy attempted to claim his bonus, but was rebuffed by Baltimore. Sturdy took his case to the National Commission, which granted him his money.68
For 1938, Sturdy became manager and part-owner of the Marshall Tigers of the East Texas League.69 The 38-year-old player-manager hit a robust .359, good for third in the league, with 12 home runs in 88 games. After the season, Sturdy purchased the team in full and entered into a working agreement with Baltimore.70 He steered Marshall to the postseason but did not get to manage the team in the playoffs. In late August, Sturdy had been handed a 90-day suspension and fined $100 by National Association President W.G. Bramham for the end of 1938 through the beginning of the next season for grabbing an umpire.71
In June 1939, Marshall hosted “Guy Sturdy Night” to welcome back their intrepid skipper. By month’s end, Sturdy sold the franchise, while staying on as non-playing manager.72 Marshall qualified for the playoffs again in 1939, falling for the second year in a row in the semifinals. Sturdy the manager made but five pinch-hitting appearances on the season.
Guy and Marie Sturdy bought a barbeque restaurant in Marshall in November 1939,73 with Guy Jr. planning to actively help Mrs. Sturdy. Tragically, that same month, 20-year-old Guy Jr. passed away from “a blood clot, the result of injuries received in a collision of his automobile with a bus” in Marshall.74
The next month, Sturdy accepted the managerial role for the El Dorado (Arkansas) Lions in the Cotton States League.75 His 1940 El Dorado squad finished in second place and made the playoffs, with the manager making 17 pinch-hitting appearances. They beat Helena in four games, then lost the finals to Monroe in five games.
Sturdy resigned before the 1941 campaign. However, by mid-May, with El Dorado off to a 4-10 start, Sturdy replaced his replacement,76 only to be let go by July. He returned to helm Marshall, now of the Cotton States League, as well as becoming business manager.77
By 1944, Sturdy was a war plant worker at Lone Star Steel in Daingerfield, Texas. He also worked at ordnance plants in Marshall and Texarkana during the war.
In 1946, Sturdy helped organize the Sherman-Denison Twins when the East Texas League reorganized, assisting owner Arthur Willingham, a Sherman furniture dealer. They attended the National Association meetings together, and a new $300,000 park was built north of town.78 Manager Sturdy started former White Sox pitcher Monte Stratton in the Twins’ debut, bringing Stratton back eight years after a hunting accident caused his amputation of his leg above the right knee. Sturdy had “a gentlemen’s agreement” with fellow managers not to bunt on the one-legged hurler.79
For 1947, Sturdy returned to Sherman, now part of the new Class B Big State League. Sturdy “a colorful diamond figure for a number of years, has been called the ‘Bombastic Bellower’ by east Texas sportswriters. He was known for his fiery temper and grandstand antics.”80 He brawled with a policeman on the field after an ejection during a game in Texarkana, was subsequently arrested for drunkenness and fighting with an officer, and released on a $50 bond.81 As a result, he was fired by Willingham, who assumed the managerial reins.82 Sturdy worked for a bit as a scout for the Washington Senators.83 Sherman-Denison rehired Sturdy two months later, after four local businessmen took ownership of the franchise.84 The Washington Senators named Sturdy manager of the Henderson Oilers, their Lone Star League affiliate, for 1948.85 In May, the “fiery, Beech-Nut chewing manager”86 Sturdy got into an incident with club secretary Maurice Hinson, who slugged Sturdy with a bat. Sturdy lost his job as a consequence.87
Guy’s son John had played some minor league ball in the mid-1950s for Abbeville and Helena (Arkansas) in the Cotton States League.
The elder Sturdy gained a moment of fame in 1955 when he was mentioned by ex-teammate and national broadcaster Dizzy Dean on consecutive broadcasts of “Game of the Week.”88 By this time, Sturdy was a steam fitter at Longhorn Ordnance Works.
In March 1956, Sturdy helped organize the Greenville, Texas team of the next incarnation of the East Texas League.89 Guy also managed the local Marshall Amateurs for years from late 1950s-mid 1960s. Wife Marie worked in the late 1950s as a manager of a local furnace company.
Guy Sturdy died on June 4, 1965, in Marshall, Texas from a heart attack.90 At the time of his passing, he was a business manager for the Plumbers and Steamfitters Union. He was survived by his wife Marie, son John, his daughter Barbara, two brothers Walter and Jack, and two grandchildren.91 Sturdy is buried at Colonial Gardens Cemetery in Marshall, Texas.
This biography was reviewed by Gregory H. Wolf and Jake Bell and checked for accuracy by SABR’s fact-checking team.
In addition to the sources shown in the Notes, the author used Baseball-Reference.com, StatsCrew.com, and MyHeritage.com.
1 Although Baseball-Reference.com gives Sturdy’s full name as Guy Sturdy, and Retrosheet lists him as Guy R. Sturdy, the 1920 census and 1921 phone directory say Guy A. Sturdy.
2 “West Texas League Starts,” Houston Post, April 30, 1920: 11. Bert Hise was originally slated as of March 1920 to be the Gorman manager, but by April, Smith had been hired. Baseball-Reference.com (as of July 2022) incorrectly lists Hise as manager.
3 Billy Bee, “Buzzin’ Around,” Fort Worth Star-Telegram, August 21, 1920: 6.
4 W.N. Stone, “Travelers Land First Sacker from West Texas Team – Other Dixie Clubs Get New Material,” (Little Rock) Arkansas Democrat, December 16, 1920: 13.
5 “Bill Wano Goes Back to First Base, Says the Kid,” (Little Rock) Arkansas Gazette, March 23, 1921: 8.
6 “Chicks Take 3rd Game 9-4 Saturday, Touching Brazil and Hegna for 16 Safeties,” Enid (Oklahoma) News, May 8, 1921: 5.
7 “Chickasha Wins Pennant by Beating Twins, 3 to 2,” Arkansas Gazette, September 28, 1921: 8.
8 “Guy Sturdy Sends in His Signed Contract,” Arkansas Gazette, March 4, 1922: 9.
9 “Abuse Ump Who Forfeits Game,” Arkansas Democrat, April 23, 1922: 4.
10 “Street and Sturdy Draw Suspensions,” Springfield (Missouri) Republican, April 25, 1922: 2.
11 “A Joplin View of Sturdy and Cotter,” Springfield (Missouri) Leader and Press, June 27, 1922: 12 (reprinted from the Joplin (Missouri) Globe).
12 “Sturdy Breaks League Record for Consecutive Hitting with 24 Games,” Joplin Globe, June 20, 1922: 6; “Gabby’s Men Given a Setback at McAlester – Yanks Break Losing Streak,” Joplin Globe, June 21, 1922: 8.
13 Joe Leblanc, “’Vet’ Shows Way to Youths,” Collyer’s Eye (Chicago), January 27, 1923: 8.
14 “Miners Annex Flag, Beating Enid Monday,” Enid (Oklahoma) Daily Eagle, September 12, 1922: 8.
15 “Sturdy is Leading Hitter of Series,” Joplin Globe, September 21, 1922: 6. Sturdy hit .517 with 15 hits in the series.
16 “Sunday’s Game to Be a Thriller,” Pawnee (Oklahoma) Courier-Dispatch, September 28, 1922: 1.
17 “Guy Sturdy Dons a Miner Uniform,” Joplin Globe, May 29, 1923: 6.
18 “Guy Sturdy Figures in Fight at Okmulgee,” Springfield Leader and Press, August 20, 1923: 6.
19 “Willson Second Highest Hitter,” Hutchinson (Kansas) News, November 1, 1924: 3.
20 “Tulsa Oilers Purchase Sturdy from Muskogee,” Joplin Globe, September 19, 1924: 6; “Guy Sturdy Gets His Big Chance with Tulsa Oilers This Season,” Joplin Globe, March 7, 1925: 7.
21 “Guy Sturdy Breaks His Leg on the Eve of a Career in the Western,” Joplin Globe, March 29, 1925: 11; “X-Ray Examination of Sturdy Shows a Fracture of Tibia,” Corsicana (Texas) Sun, March 28, 1925: 9; “Tulsa Has Some Tough Luck,” The Sporting News, April 9, 1925: 2.
22 “Tulsa None Too Sure of Pitching Strength,” The Sporting News, April 23, 1925: 1.
23 “Sturdy and Austin Recalled by Tulsa Club,” Springfield News-Leader, August 4, 1925: 5.
24 “Denver’s Hopes Smashed When Oilers Win One,” Lincoln (Nebraska) Star, September 28, 1925: 8.
25 Dick Stuart of Lincoln broke Sturdy’s league home run record in 1956.
26 “Swats Homers at Record Gait,” Lincoln Star, June 20, 1926: 14.
27 Sturdy’s 49 home runs were second in all of organized baseball, behind the 62 from Moose Clabaugh of Tyler of the East Texas League.
28 “Heavy Hitting Featured Western League Guy Sturdy and Henry Packed Big Stick,” Omaha (Nebraska) Evening Bee, January 25, 1927: 9.
29 “Guy Sturdy of Browns, Formerly of Miners, Set Home Run Record,” Joplin Globe, December 26, 1926: 9.
30 “Heydler Will Act in Hornsby Snarl,” The Sporting News, December 16, 1926: 1.
31 “Tulsa Rookie Stars for Browns,” Fort Worth Star-Telegram, March 11, 1927: 26.
32 “Shell Oilers Take 1st Half of Season,” (Los Angeles) Daily News, December 13, 1926: 19; Frank T. Blair, “Shells Beat Giants and Capture League Pennant,” (Long Beach, California) Press-Telegram, December 13, 1926: 21.
33 “Week-End Baseball Games Replete with Thrills,” (Los Angeles) California Eagle, January 14, 1927: 7.
34 “Guy Sturdy Hits Four Safe Ones at Browns’ Camp,” Press-Telegram, March 11, 1927: 26.
35 Jinx Tucker, “Western Champions Open Series Today,” (Waco, Texas) News Tribune, September 14, 1927: 7.
36 “Guy Sturdy Recalled by St. Louis Browns,” Springfield Leader and Press, September 9, 1927: 15.
37 “200 Fans See Two Contests in St. Louis,” (Glens Falls, New York) Post-Star, October 1, 1927: 9.
38 James M. Gould, “Browns Lost 1st Game to Indians but Win Second,” (St. Louis) Star and Times, September 30, 1927: 2.
39 “Browns Have Wealth of New Talent to Try at First Base,” (Wilmington, Delaware) News Journal, January 17, 1928: 17.
40 “Howley Lays Lines for Winter Swaps,” The Sporting News, December 1, 1927: 1.
41 “Guy Sturdy Receives Injury to His Back,” York (Pennsylvania) Dispatch, March 27, 1928: 16.
42 L. Robert Davids, “New Records for Pinch Hitters,” SABR Research Journals Archive (date unknown): http://research.sabr.org/journals/new-records-for-pinch-hitters. According to Baseball Almanac, as of 2021, the American League record for pinch-hitting appearances in a season was 72 from Dave Philley of the 1961 Baltimore Orioles. The National League record is 100 by Ichiro Suzuki of the 2017 Miami Marlins. https://www.baseball-almanac.com/recbooks/pinch-hitters-records.shtml.
43 “Guy Sturdy, of St. Louis Browns, Was Sent to the Milwaukee Americans,” (Lebanon, Pennsylvania) Daily News, August 23, 1928: 4; “Browns Send Sturdy to Milwaukee Under Optional Agreement,” St. Louis Globe-Democrat, August 23, 1928: 11.
44 Herbert Barker, “Dobbsmen Buy First Baseman from St. Louis,” Birmingham (Alabama) News, December 7, 1928: 22.
45 “Southern League,” Chattanooga Times, September 15, 1929: 17. Dashiell had coincidentally attended Austin College in Sturdy’s hometown of Sherman, Texas.
46 Chas. H. Miller, “Sturdy Sets Pace for First-Sackers,” Birmingham News, March 2, 1930: 19.
47 Thad Holt, Jr., “Birmingham Champs Keep Right Direction,” The Sporting News, July 4, 1929: 3.
48 “Barons Beat Steers and Capture Crown,” Selma (Alabama) Times-Journal, October 3, 1929: 6.
49 “Guy Sturdy to be Awarded Watch at Rickwood Friday,” Birmingham News, September 11, 1930: 14.
50 “Guy Sturdy Sold to Houston Club,” Montgomery (Alabama) Advertiser, December 6, 1930: 8.
51 Zipp Newman, “Dusting ‘Em Off,” Birmingham News, June 18, 1931: 13.
52 Flem R. Hall, “The Sport Tide,” Fort Worth Star-Telegram, December 4, 1931: 23.
53 “Guy Sturdy Scorns Pelicans Contract and So He’s Freed,” Springfield News-Leader, February 21, 1932: 7; “Notes,” Fort Worth Star Telegram, February 25, 1932: 12.
54 “Guy Sturdy New Object of Martin’s Discipline,” Chattanooga Times, September 6, 1932: 9.
55 “Sturdy Pilots Travelers,” The Sporting News, June 29, 1933: 1.
56 “Guy Sturdy of Travelers of Suspended List,” Commercial Appeal (Memphis, Tennessee), July 17, 1933: 12.
57 William Paessler, “Pennants Trail Guy Sturdy,” The Sporting News, March 22, 1934: 8.
58 “Johnny Gooch is Mentioned as New Manager of Little Rock Club,” Commercial Appeal, November 16, 1933: 16; “Gathered on Promenade Along Galveston Sea Wall,” The Sporting News, November 23, 1933: 6.
59 Val J. Flanagan, “Strohm Another Baron Addition,” The Sporting News, December 21, 1933: 1.
60 C.M. Gibbs, “Jones Hurls No-Hit Game over Orioles – A’s Twice Defeat Senators,” Baltimore Sun, July 5, 1934: 13.
61 Paul Menton, “It’s All in the Viewpoint,” Baltimore Evening Sun, July 25, 1934: 16.
62 Randall Cassell, “Sturdy Retained to Manage Birds in 1935,” Baltimore Evening Sun, August 28, 1934: 20.
63 Ken Francis, “Veteran Player-Manager Coaching Marshall Amateurs,” Shreveport (Louisiana) Journal, June 2, 1964: 6.
64 Jesse A. Linthicum, “Sunlight on Sports: The Sturdy Case,” Baltimore Sun, March 27, 1937: 11.
65 “Investigate Charges against Sturdy,” (Lincoln) Nebraska State Journal, March 26, 1937: 12.
66 “El Albosta on the Pan,” Montreal Star, April 22, 1942: 24.
67 Randall Cassell, “Crouse New Oriole Boss; Sturdy Stays as Scout,” The Sporting News, May 27, 1937: 1.
68 “Pilot Fired Seeks Bonus,” Richmond Times Dispatch, December 22, 1937: 18.
69 “Guy Sturdy Marshall Manager,” Fort Worth Star-Telegram, December 7, 1937: 13.
70 “Caught on the Fly,” The Sporting News, November 10, 1938: 9.
71 “90-Day Penalty for Sturdy,” Fort Worth Star-Telegram, August 25, 1938: 9; “East Texas Loop Alters Rookie and Salary Limit,” The Sporting News, November 17, 1838: 1.
72 “Guy Sturdy Gives Up Marshall Franchise,” (Harlingen, Texas) Valley Morning Star, July 18, 1939: 5.
73 “Mr. and Mrs. Guy Sturdy Buy Mc’s Barbeque Shop,” Marshall (Texas) News Messenger, November 12, 1939: 15.
74 “Necrology,” The Sporting News, November 23, 1939: 6; “Injuries Fatal to Guy Sturdy Jr.,” Marshall News Messenger, November 17, 1939: 1.
75 “Guy Sturdy to Lead El Dorado,” The Sporting News, December 14, 1939: 11.
76 Travis Oliver, “El Dorado Reinstates Sturdy as Pilot After Poor Get-Away,” The Sporting News, May 22, 1941: 5.
77 Charlie Kerg, “Jones Resigns, Sturdy is Named Marshall Skipper,” (Greenville, Mississippi) Delta Democrat-Times, July 13, 1941: 6; “Cowboy Jones Quits as Tiger Manager; Guy Sturdy is to Succeed Him,” Marshall News Messenger, July 13, 1941: 5.
78 “Twins Tackle Bears Tonight,” Fort Worth Star-Telegram, April 25, 1946: 13.
79 Leonard Dumas, “The Grandstander,” Marshall News Messenger, July 21, 1954: 11.
80 “Guy Sturdy Released,” Chattanooga Times, May 1, 1947: 17.
81 “Guy Sturdy Under Bond After Ball Game Brawl,” Fort Worth Star-Telegram, April 28, 1947: 9; “Sturdy Shelved by Loop Prexy,” Marshall News Messenger, April 29, 1947: 7.
82 “Guy Sturdy Released as Sherman Manager,” (Wichita Falls, Texas) Times Record News, May 1, 1947: 11.
83 “Sturdy Out at Henderson,” Marshall News Messenger, May 13, 1948: 7.
84 “New Sherman-Denison Owners Rename Guy Sturdy Manager,” Amarillo (Texas) Globe Times, July 10, 1947: 11.
85 “Guy Sturdy Named Henderson Manager,” Shreveport Journal, December 4, 1947: 9.
86 Bob Jardes, “Henderson Oilers in Dark Horse Role,” Kilgore (Texas) News Herald, April 23, 1948: 5.
87 Bob Jardes, “Sport Briefs,” Kilgore News Herald, May 16, 1948: 6.
88 “Sturdy Gains Fame with TV Audience,” Marshall News Messenger, August 21, 1955: 10.
89 “Sturdy Plans Baseball Team,” Marshall News Messenger, March 11, 1956: 14.
90 “Guy Sturdy Dies from Heart Attack,” Shreveport Journal, May 5, 1965: 16.
91 “Guy Sturdy,” Marshall News Messenger, May 6, 1965: 2.