American League Park / Oriole Park (IV), July 18, 1907. Courtesy of David B. Stinson and Bernard McKenna.

American League Park (Baltimore, MD)

This article was written by David Stinson

American League Park / Oriole Park (IV), July 18, 1907. Courtesy of David B. Stinson and Bernard McKenna.

American League Park / Oriole Park (IV), July 18, 1907. (Courtesy of David B. Stinson and Bernard McKenna.)


American League Park was the home of the first American League Baltimore Orioles in 1901 and 1902.1 From 1903 to 1914, the ballpark was known as Oriole Park (IV) and was home to the Eastern League Orioles and then the International League Orioles (when the league changed names in 1911).2 The ballpark was located at the southwest corner of Greenmount Avenue (formerly York Road) and East 29th Street.3 From 1889 to 1891, the site was the home of the American Association Baltimore Orioles; it was the second ballpark known as Oriole Park.4 First base paralleled Barclay Street, right field paralleled East 28th Street, left field paralleled Greenmount Avenue, and third base paralleled East 29th Street.5

From 1892 to 1899, the National League Orioles played their home games four blocks south of American League Park at Union Park (Oriole Park (III).6 When the National League departed after the 1899 season, Baltimore was left without a major-league franchise. The American League was formed during the following winter, 1900-1901, and Baltimore was granted one of eight franchises. John McGraw, the former National League Oriole, was chosen as manager of the new American League Orioles.7

Byron Bancroft “Ban” Johnson, president of the new league, visited Baltimore with McGraw in December 1900 to tour possible sites for the new American League ballpark, including Union Park.8 After the tour, it was announced that the site at 29th Street and York Road was preferred, and that Union Park was not being considered for the ballpark site.9 Of course, with Union Park still under the control of the National League, Ned Hanlon, a former Orioles manager and the current Brooklyn (NL) manager, had no intention of letting the American League utilize it as its home ballpark.10 A third possible site was Electric Park, at Belvedere Avenue and Reisterstown Road near Pimlico racetrack.11

A five-year lease of the York Road grounds was signed on January 16, 1901, and the ballpark officially was named American League Park.12 The cost of constructing the grandstands was estimated at between $15,000 and $20,000. The Baltimore Sun noted that “[t]he stands are to be of the most approved modern construction, and an effort will be made to have them as comfortable as possible.”13 One complaint about the York Road site, when it was used as the home field for the American Association from 1889 to 1891, was that train and trolley lines did not stop close to the ballpark and fans had to walk several blocks up York Road to reach the ballpark. The new American League ballclub made arrangements to fix that problem:

The railway conditions are to be arranged shortly, and it is believed that the grounds can be reached from the center of Baltimore in 15 minutes, and probably 12 minutes can be made the limit. At present the only line going directly to the new ball park is the York road line.

The St. Paul Street line, which runs over the elevated structure on North Street, goes close to the park, and passengers can go to York road and Waverly avenue or alight at St. Paul and Twenty-ninth streets as the line now runs. There would be little trouble, however, in running the line directly to the ground.14

Additional details concerning the grandstand and bleachers were announced on January 25, 1901:

It was concluded to put up a single-deck grandstand, to be topped by a cupola, which will be divided into three sections – one for the press, one for the directors and one for the use of telegraph operators.

The main floor will consist of a series of private boxes in front. Opera chairs will fill the remainder of the space. The grandstand is to seat 3,000 people.

An open, or bleacher, stand is to be built in the left field, and is to seat 3,000. In right field there is also to be an open stand, which is to seat 1,500.15

In February 1901, anticipating that American League Park would be used for more than just baseball, the Johns Hopkins Athletic Association agreed to raise $2,000 to install a quarter-mile running track and build a clubhouse.16 Johns Hopkins agreed to a five-year subtenancy at American League Park.17 Additional improvements by Johns Hopkins were:

In the deep center field there will be a clubhouse, built to harmonize with the other buildings on the grounds. In the clubhouse there will be a large ventilated locker room, a lounging room, a reading room, a “cooling off” room and baths of all improved kinds.18

Martin Liston, the landscape gardener at Patterson Park, a popular public park in southeast Baltimore, was hired to install the grounds.19 Leveling the grounds proved difficult as they previously had been used by circuses and were “gullied with ruts from the heavy wagons” and “stakes driven far into the ground.”20 About a month before Opening Day, the Baltimore Sun reported:

The fence at the ball park is practically finished, as are the bleachers. The grandstand is going up rapidly and the water pipes are being laid.

Builder Henry S. Rippel said last night that with the exception of the grandstand roof all the buildings will be complete by April 1, the date specified in the contract. The delay in finishing the roof of the grandstand will be caused by the fact that it became necessary to send South for the long timbers required in the construction. All the fencing is 14 feet high and double, so that peepers cannot get a quarter’s worth through a knothole or a seam.21

On February 12, 1901, about 400 fans attended the groundbreaking for American League Park, which was held in the northeast corner of the plot, on which was being constructed an “Administration Building.”22 Used for the ceremony was a special silver spade, which the previous night was displayed at John McGraw’s and Wilbert Robinson’s Diamond Café on North Howard Street.23 In attendance were McGraw, Col. J.P. Shannon, Johns Hopkins Professor Edward Renouf, and Sheriff John B. Schwatka, who “was the fortunate man to dig the first earth.”24 After the ceremony ended, “[t]he silvered spade was taken back to Robinson & McGraw’s place of business with York road soil still adhering to it. It was hung up once more, and on a card depending from it are the words: ‘I have done it.’”25

By the end of March 1901, final preparations were under way at the ballpark:

A visit to the new grounds yesterday revealed a scene of activity which was crowded by all the men who could work comfortably in the space inclosed by the fences. Carpenters were busy preparing to put the roof on the grandstand, wagons were hustling in beams for the said roof and inside carpenters were putting finishing touches to the administration building, which is ready for the fittings.

In the field a dozen horses were pulling around a varied assortment of agricultural instruments having for their object the leveling and packing of the outfield. On the diamond were about a score of rural-looking individuals with rakes, hoes and shovels making ready the sod and neatly adjusting any slight irregularities in the surface. These farmer folk allowed that the ground would not be ready for business for some ten days or more, but McGraw says that he will be ready to open there with Yale on April 5, and if there is any danger of the present force being inadequate he will find room for still more men.26

Several exhibition games preceded American League Park’s major-league debut, including one on April 13, with the Orioles hosting the Maryland Athletic Club at 2:45 P.M., followed by a lacrosse match between Johns Hopkins University and the University of Pennsylvania at 4 P.M.27 American League Park debuted on April 26, 1901, with the Orioles taking on the Boston Americans. The Baltimore Sun noted that many of the Boston players were well known to Baltimore fans: “Manager Collins and Outfielder ‘Chick’ Stahl were members of the Boston team of 1897, that defeated Hanlon’s Champions and kept them out of their fourth successive championship in that famous series at Union Park, which was witnessed by nearly 50,000 people for the three games, and which decided the pennant fight.”28

“A parade preceding the game began at the Eutaw House on North Eutaw Street (now the site of the Hippodrome Theater) at 12:30 P.M., and proceeded [f]rom Eutaw House down Baltimore Street to Holliday, passing the City Hall to Lexington Street, to Calvert, to Fayette, to Howard, to Monument, to Charles, to Huntingdon avenue, to the York road, and thence to the grounds.”29 The Baltimore Sun elaborated:

With a big parade, with appropriate ceremonies and with hearty enthusiasm will Baltimore welcome today the return of baseball to this city, after an absence of 18 months. The discredited and unpopular National League moved out of the city in October, 1899 – today the young giant of baseball, the American League, escorted by popular players – McGraw and Robinson – will make its first bow to the Baltimore baseball loving public. That the new major league and the new Orioles will receive a hearty welcome goes without saying.30

The parade consisted of “25 open carriages in line, besides two tallyho coaches and a phaeton, all of which will be used to transport baseball club presidents, managers, directors, the ballplayers themselves and members of local athletic and ball clubs, as well as lovers of the sport in general.”31 The Fourth Regiment Band, some 40 strong, provided music for the parade and, as a “notable feature.” the parade included “50 butchers, wearing white aprons and mounted on horses,” headed by Baltimore butcher George Wannensvetsch.32

As for the game itself, 10,371 tickets were sold in what was a standing-room-only sellout, with Ban Johnson throwing out the first pitch.33 The Orioles defeated the Boston Americans 10-6, with Joe McGinnity on the mound for the Orioles.34 John McGraw had Baltimore’s first American League hit (a double) and scored the first run.35 Boston’s Cy Young pitched the second game at American League Park and the Orioles won that game too, 12-6.36 Improvements to American League Park continued during the inaugural season. In June a “big blackboard” was painted on the center-field fence and arrangements were “made to have the scores of all the American League games bulletined there by innings while the local game is in progress.”37 In August the Orioles held a Ladies’ Day at American League Park and declared it a “great success,” as the Orioles defeated the Cleveland Blues 1-0.38 The Baltimore Sun noted, “[T]he ladies’ stand presented a very pretty picture yesterday,” with 2,566 in attendance.39

In the waning days of the 1901 season, the Baltimore Sun looked back on the first year of the American League:

The American League Season closes next week. After Milwaukee, Cleveland and Detroit will come to Baltimore, and with Detroit the season ends.

The American League has had a successful season, contrary to the predictions of the National League and its friends, who said it would not last six weeks. The American has the distinction of being the only organization that ever made a successful fight against the National League.

Manager McGraw is not ready to announce his team for next year, but expects to have something interesting to tell shortly.40

That first year, the Orioles placed fifth in the American League with a record of 68-65, 13½ games back.41 Attendance for the season totaled 141,952 and the Orioles claimed to have lost only $8,000.42

In addition to college baseball, American League Park also was home to city Municipal League of Clubs during the 1901 season. In one such match, on May 19, the Park-Street Cleaning Department defeated the Subway Department 10-9.43 On May 30 the Yanigan baseball team (begun by Orioles catcher Wilbert Robinson in the 1890s) played the Cuban Giants, a team composed of African-American players.44 On July 4 about 1,400 spectators filled the ballpark to watch three games played between the Yanigans and the Lafayettes, a team composed of white players, and the Baltimore Giants and the Norfolk Red Stockings, both teams of African-American players.45 On July 22 the Baltimore Giants played the Lafayettes in the deciding game of the championship of Baltimore City.46 The Lafayettes defeated the Giants 17-7.47 Sporting events at the ballpark during the fall of 1901 included a college football game between Maryland Agricultural College (the University of Maryland) and Johns Hopkins University.48

In March 1902 John Murphy, brother of the former Union Park groundskeeper Tom Murphy, was hired as groundskeeper at American League Park.49 Murphy added to the ballpark “marking of the batsmen’s positions with a sod line instead of a line of lime” and “[t]an bark walks about three feet wide” leading “from the players’ benches to home plate.”50 Murphy likewise added “the words American League Park in sod” and “[c]ircles of tan bark near the players’ benches that designate those stations by the words ‘Home Club,’ and ‘Visiting Club’ in letters of sod.”51 In addition, he installed a large horseshoe of tanbark and turf near home plate “with the words ‘Good Luck’ under it.”52

Improvements to the ballpark structure included a space “opened between the grandstand and the boardwalk to the ladies stand which acts as a huge ventilator for the grandstand.”53 In addition:

To accommodate the large numbers expected at the Baltimore grounds, there will be four entrances to the grounds. Two of these will lead to the grand stand; and two to the bleachers. The seating capacity at the park is over 7,000.

Places in the infield are to be roped off so that be the crowd never so large all are to be properly cared for.

When the gates are thrown open tomorrow, visitors will see some new and original features in the way of beautifying the grounds and arranging them for the convenience of the players.54

Opening Day 1902 was April 23, with a parade leaving Eutaw House, “preceded by mounted police and the officials of the clubs.”55 As they had before the opening of the ballpark in 1901, the players rode in carriages “to North street, to Lexington, to Calvert, to Fayette, to Howard, to Madison, to Charles, to Huntingdon avenue, to the York Road and thence to the grounds at York road and Twenty-ninth street.”56 By May the wheels of the Orioles season and ultimately its existence in Baltimore began their detachment from the carriages. On May 5 McGraw was suspended by Ban Johnson for “trouble which occurred at American League Park” during the final game of a series with Boston.57 While McGraw was suspended by the league, groundskeeper Murphy continued his beautification of the ballpark.58 To a new design of sod “in front of the grandstand with the names McGraw and Robinson worked in sod,” he added the words “Keep Off.”59 Murphy’s design proved both ironic and prophetic. In July 1902 McGraw departed for New York to become the player-manager of the National League Giants.60 With him went groundskeeper Murphy and several players, including Joe McGinnity.61

After McGraw’s departure, the Orioles lacked a sufficient number of players to field a team and Ban Johnson “declared Baltimore’s franchise forfeited to the league.”62 Wilbert Robinson was named manager of the team and “a ragtag of utility men from other teams” were added “to play out the season.”63 As the 1902 season wound down, Robinson reported on the state of the league and the Orioles, stating, “I tell you the American League teams are playing great ball, and our team, with little to spur them on and the uncertainty of next year, was simply outclassed.”64 Attendance at American League Park plummeted, and at the end of the season Baltimore was in last place with a record of 50-88, 34 games behind the Philadelphia Athletics.65 The Orioles faced Boston in the last game of the season at American League Park, with Boston winning 9-5 before a paid attendance of 138.66 It was the last American League contest at that site.

In October 1902 Ban Johnson consented to the sale of American League Park as part of the property formerly owned by Baltimore’s American League franchise.67 As observed by the Baltimore Sun:

This means the selling of all the stands and buildings at the new American League Park, at York road and Twenty-ninth street, and President Ban Johnson’s attorney, Mr. Olin Bryan, formally consented to the receivership.

The latter fact would seem to indicate that the American League had given up all idea of having a club here next year, though not necessarily, as it is barely possible, though highly improbable, that the American League expects to buy from the receivers.68

In November 1902 the grandstand chairs at American League Park were sold, conditionally, by an appointed receiver for 50 cents each.69 In December Ned Hanlon, the Brooklyn manager and former Orioles manager, placed a bid to purchase American League Park.70 Hanlon had toured the facility with National League President Harry Pulliam on December 15.71 The sale of the property was held up momentarily, at least in part to await completion of a joint peace committee between the National and American Leagues.72 According to the Baltimore Sun:

In the interim local lovers of the national game will be kept in doubt as to whether Baltimore is to have a big league club in 1903. That it will have such a club either in 1903 or the next year is believed by everybody who takes any interest in the question, and Mr. Hanlon says that it is sheer nonsense to think that a city of 600,000 inhabitants can be ignored as a home for a big league team.

The Union Park site must undoubtedly soon go as a baseball landmark and what has been known as American League Park will probably be available for years.73

Hanlon purchased American League Park from the receiver on December 31, 1902, for $3,000, with the hope of securing a franchise from another National League city or a possible expansion franchise.74 Another option Hanlon considered was a franchise in the Eastern League.75 In purchasing the ballpark contents, Hanlon gained ownership of the opera chairs that the receiver had conditionally sold for 50 cents apiece.76 According to the Baltimore Sun, “Hanlon is believed also to have got a bargain, as $15,000 would be required to erect buildings similar to those now on the grounds and to put any grounds in condition.”77 According to Hanlon, “[c]hances are that this city will have a good club in a big league, but much will depend upon the joint peace committee of the American and National League.”78

Hanlon’s prophecy proved incorrect, with the exception of a Federal League franchise in 1914-1915, which Hanlon helped bring to Baltimore and install in a new ballpark built next to American League, Park across 29th Street. It was not until 1954 that Baltimore received its second American League franchise (the original 1901 Milwaukee franchise, which moved to St. Louis in 1902).

In 1903 Hanlon acquired an Eastern League franchise from Montreal and moved it to Baltimore.79 Hanlon renamed the team the Orioles and the team moved into the former American League Park, now Oriole Park (IV), installing Wilbert Robinson as manager.80 Opening Day included a parade to the ballpark and a first pitch by Henry Chadwick, the New York baseball scribe and inventor of the box score.81 Former Orioles shortstop Hughie Jennings joined the team in July, playing first base for the Orioles. The team played respectable baseball during its first few years in existence, placing fourth, second, second, and third from 1903 to 1906.82 In 1906 Hanlon purchased the grounds on which the ballpark sat, as well as a parcel adjoining the ballpark, in hopes of bringing a major-league team to Baltimore.83

In October 1907 many of the former National League Orioles returned to Baltimore to celebrate their 1894-1896 championship seasons.84 A game was played at Oriole Park (IV), preceded by a parade commencing at Eutaw House.85 As noted by the Baltimore Sun, the event was a huge success for the city:

Never has Baltimore been more enthusiastic over a baseball game than yesterday, when, after a parade through the principal streets of the city, witnessed by thousands of homecomers and faithful rooters, the three-time champions and the present Orioles played an interesting game at Oriole Park.

The festivities began Sunday night, when the old idols of the diamond arrived at the Eutaw House, where they gathered in a crowd and exchanged reminiscences of the days that used to be.86 The “old Orioles” who played the game at Oriole Park included John McGraw, Willie Keeler, Hughie Jennings, Kid Gleason, Joe Kelley, Jack Doyle, Dan Brouthers, Steve Brodie, Heinie Reitz, Wilbert Robinson, Boileryard Clarke, Bill Hoffer, Sadie McMahon, George Hemming, and Tony Mullane, with Ned Hanlon as manager.87

Hanlon’s hopes of bringing a major-league team to the former American League Park did not materialize and, in 1908 he sold the team and the ballpark to Jack Dunn, a former American League and Eastern League Oriole, for $70,000.88 In 1909 “Dunn moved home plate from near Greenmount Avenue (where batters faced into the afternoon sun) to the lot’s northwest corner.”89 He also scheduled games on Sundays in a ballpark he built in Baltimore County at Back River Park, to avoid Baltimore City’s blue laws.90 In 1914 Dunn famously acquired Babe Ruth, who pitched in Oriole Park (IV) as a member of the International League Orioles, until he was sold in August to the Boston Red Sox, and then played for their International League affiliate in Providence.

Dunn needed the money, for earlier that year, Hanlon had helped bring to Baltimore a new Federal League franchise, the Terrapins, who played in a new ballpark next to Oriole Park (IV) across 29th Street.91 The Terrapins and the Federal League lasted just two seasons, 1914 and 1915, and after the league’s demise, Jack Dunn purchased Terrapin Park from Hanlon and moved his International League Orioles to the former Federal League ballpark.92

Beginning in January 1916, Billy Sunday, an evangelist and former baseball player, erected a tented tabernacle on the site of the former ballpark.93 As of April 1919, baseball still was played at the former site of Oriole Park (IV), with the Oriole Athletic Association sponsoring games there.94 A McDonald’s restaurant and two-story row houses fronting both sides of Llchester Road, constructed after the demise of American League Park/Oriole Park (IV), now cover the former ballpark site.95



1 Byron Bennett, “Baltimore’s First American League Park – Original Home of the Future New York Yankees,”, August 23, 2012. (accessed December 29, 2019).

2 Bennett, “Baltimore’s First American League Park.”

3 Bennett, “Baltimore’s First American League Park.”

4 Byron Bennett, “The Six Different Ballparks Known as Oriole Park,”, December 30, 2013. (accessed December 29, 2019).

5 Bennett, “The Six Different Ballparks Known as Oriole Park.”

6 Bennett, “The Six Different Ballparks Known as Oriole Park.”

7 “Baseball Directors Meet: J.J. McGraw Made Manager of the Team – Now to Get Grounds,” Baltimore Sun, January 15, 1901: 6.

8 “Picking a Ball Ground: McGraw, Robinson and Johnson on a Land Hunt,” Baltimore Sun, December 20, 1900: 6.

9 “Picking a Ball Ground.”

10 James H. Bready, Baseball in Baltimore, The First 100 Years (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press University Press, 1977), 105.

11 Bready, 105.

12 “Ball Ground Leased: American League Park Is to Be the Name of It, Old Site on the York Road,” Baltimore Sun, January 17, 1901: 6.

13 “Ball Ground Leased.”

14 “Ball Ground Leased.”

15 “Plans For Ball Park: Trip to American League Meeting, McGraw Signs Bresnahan,” Baltimore Sun, January 26, 1901: 6.

16 “Athletic Funds For J.H.U.: Students to Equip Ball Ground with Lot,” Baltimore Sun, February 15, 1901: 6.

17 “Ball Club and Varsity: Johns Hopkins Gets Fine Campus and Orioles a Gym at American League Park,” Baltimore Sun, February 5, 1901: 6.

18 “Ball Club and Varsity.”

19 “At American League Park: Liston’s Good Work on Diamond – Double Fences Boys!” Baltimore Sun, March 19, 1901: 6.

20 “At American League Park.”

21 “At American League Park.”

22 “In Goes Silver Spade: Crowd Cheers When Ground Is Broken for Ball Field at American League Park,” Baltimore Sun, February 13, 1901: 6.

23 “He’ll Use a Silver Spade: Will Sheriff Schwatka in Breaking Ground for Baseball Park,” Baltimore Sun, February 12, 1901: 6.

24 “In Goes Silver Spade.”

25 “In Goes Silver Spade.”

26 “Orioles to Practice: McGraw to Have Them at Electric Park on Monday,” Baltimore Sun March 30, 1901: 6.

27 Classified ad, Baltimore Sun, April 13, 1901: 1.

28 “Now, Play Ball! American League Season Opens with a Hurrah Today: Boston Against the Orioles,” Baltimore Sun, April 24, 1901: 6.

29 “Now, Play Ball!”

30 “Now, Play Ball!”

31 “Thus Baseball Starts: Big Band, Four-Horse Carriages and Joyful Rooters,” Baltimore Sun, April 22, 1901: 6.

32 “Thus Baseball Starts.”

33 Bready, 107.

34 Burt Solomon, Where They Ain’t, the Fabled Life and Untimely Death of the Original Baltimore Orioles, the Team That Gave Birth to Modern Baseball (New York: The Free Press, 1999), 207.

35 Solomon, 207.

36 Bready, 107;

37 “Notes of the Diamond,” Baltimore Sun, June 11, 1901: 6.

38 “It Was Ladies’ Day: One Reason Suggested Why the Birds Play Great-Ball,” Baltimore Sun,

August 17, 1901: 6.

39 “It Was Ladies’ Day.”

40 “Baseball’s Waning Season: Double-Headers with Brewers, Then Cleveland, Then Detroit,” Baltimore Sun, September 21, 1901: 6.

41 Bready, 107.

42 Bready, 107.

43 “Maryland Contests,” Baltimore Sun, May 20, 1901: 6.

44 “Sporting Miscellany,” Baltimore Sun, May 30, 1901: 6; “Yanigans, 28; Cuban Giants, 2: Captain Bobby’s Aggregation Meets a Colored Club at Union Park to Play Ball,” Baltimore Sun, July 17, 1897: 6.

45 “White Players and Black: Yanigans Beat Norfolk Reds Badly, Lafayettes and Giants Even,” Baltimore Sun, July 5, 1901: 6.

46 Sporting Miscellany, Baltimore Sun, July 22, 1901: 6.

47 “Lafayettes, 17; Giants, 7,” Baltimore Sun, July 23, 1901: 6.

48 “Good for Farmers: Johns Hopkins Able to Score but Six Points on Them, Agriculturals Fight Hard,” Baltimore Sun, October 20, 1901: 6.

49 “Jennings Not to Play Here: Secretary Goldman Says Rumor Is Untrue – Plans For Opening,” Baltimore Sun, April 12, 1902: 6.

50 “Ready for the Game: American League Park Spruced Up for the Opening, Unique Designs in Flowers,” Baltimore Sun, April 22, 1902: 6.

51“Ready for the Game.”

52 “Ready for the Game.”

53 “Ready for the Game.”

54 “Ready for the Game.”

55 “It Comes Off Today: Band Will Play and the Orioles Will Hustle for Runs,” Baltimore Sun, April

23, 1902: 6.

56 “It Comes Off Today.”

57 “John McGraw’s Suspension: Friends Nettled at Johnson’s Act – Manager Refuses to Talk,” Baltimore Sun, May 6, 1902: 6.

58 “Beauties of American League Park,” Baltimore Sun, May 10, 1902: 6.

59 “Beauties of American League Park.”

60 Bready, 108-109.

61 Bready, 108-109.

62 Bready, 110.

63 Bready, 110.

64 “Orioles at Home Again: Manager Robinson Says American League Is a Wonderful Success,” Baltimore Sun, September 12, 1902: 6.

65 Bready, 110.

66 Bready, 110.

67 “Will Old League Buy? Receivers Appointed to Sell the Stands at New Baseball Park,” Baltimore Sun, October 21, 1902: 6.

68 “Will Old League Buy?”

69 “Grandstand Chairs Sold, American League Park Receivers Get 50 Cents Each for Them,” Baltimore Sun, November 8, 1902: 6.

70 “Hanlon Still Waiting, Regarded as Bidder for American League Park,” Baltimore Sun, December 21, 1902: 6.

71 “Pulliam in Baltimore, He Looks Over Ball Parks With Manager Edward Hanlon,” Baltimore Sun, December 16, 1902: 6.

72 “Skirmish for Ball Park, Local Promoters Waiting for the Outcome of Peace Negotiations,” Baltimore Sun, December 23, 1902: 6.

73 “Skirmish for Ball Park.”

74 “Hanlon’s Ball Park Now, Brooklyn Leader Buys American League Club Out, Gives the Receivers $3,000,” Baltimore Sun, January 1, 1903: 9.

75 “Hanlon’s Ball Park Now.”

76 “Hanlon’s Ball Park Now.”

77 “Hanlon’s Ball Park Now.”

78 “Hanlon’s Ball Park Now.”

79 “Promise a Good Team: Hanlon to Have One in the Eastern League, Gets the Baseball Park,” Baltimore Sun, January 30, 1903: 9.

80 “Promise a Good Team.”

81 Bready, 116.

82 Bready, 116.

83 “Now Owns Oriole Park, Mr. Hanlon’s Purchase May Mean Big-League Ball Here Soon,” Baltimore Sun, November 23, 1906: 9.

84 “Big Baseball Games, All the Old and New Players Are Rounded Up, a Luncheon to Homecomers,” Baltimore Sun, October 13, 1907: 10.

85 “Big Baseball Games.”

86 “Lovefeast for Old Ones, Banquet Precedes the Parade of the Rival Teams,” Baltimore Sun, October 15, 1907: 10.

87 “Lovefeast for Old Ones.”

88 Bready, 116-117

89 Bready, 116-117; “Dunn as Team Owner: Jack Wants to Buy Local Club’s Franchise, Hanlon Says He Will Sell, but the Manager Declares He Must Get ‘Proper Price,’” Baltimore Sun, October 8, 1909: 10; “Hanlon Is Sole Owner,” Baltimore Sun, November 11, 1909: 10; Jack Dunn Buys Orioles: Former Manager Is Sole Owner of Baltimore Baseball Club, Old Robbie Is a Director, Charles H. Knapp Is Third Director and Secretary and Treasurer – New Faces to Be Seen,” Baltimore Sun, November17, 1909: 10.

90 Bready, 118.

91 “Big League Plan Launched: Articles of Incorporation of Federal Club Sent to Annapolis,” Baltimore Sun, October 28, 1913: 16.

92 Byron Bennett, “Baltimore’s Other Major League Ballfield – Terrapin Park/Oriole Park,”:, December 6, 2012. (accessed December 29, 2019); Bennett, “The Six Different Ballparks Known as Oriole Park.”

93 “Paving Way for Sunday: Evangelist’s Constructor and Advance Agent Arrive, Work on Tabernacle to Begin, Season of Neighborhood Prayer Meetings Starts This Evening – Registering Choir Members,” Baltimore Sun, January 4, 1916: 3.

94 “Will Use Old Oriole Park,” Baltimore Sun, April 13, 1919: CA15.

95 Bennett, “Baltimore’s First American League Park – Original Home of the Future New York Yankees.”