Lefty pitcher Tom Bolton played professional baseball for 19 years (1980-1998). He was in the majors for three full seasons and parts of five others from 1987 to 1994. The sinkerballer was at his best in 1990 for the Boston Red Sox, going 10-5 with a 3.38 ERA and helping Boston win the American League East.
Thomas Edward Bolton was born in Nashville, Tennessee, on May 6, 1962. He was one of six children (two daughters and four sons) of William and Sea Willow Bolton (née Brock).1 William was a cabinetmaker, and Tom learned that skill as well. He worked as a cabinetmaker from 1976 to 2000, longer than his career in pro ball.2
Young Tommy started playing baseball in the second grade.3 He developed into a standout high school player. With Antioch High School in suburban Nashville, he helped the Bears capture a state title in 1979 with a 9-2 record as a junior.4 Overall in his high school career, he accrued a 26-4 record with a 1.06 ERA and 279 strikeouts.5
Bolton considered attending the University of Tennessee – he wanted to study architecture – but the coach there wanted him to play as an outfielder rather than pitch.6 As a result, Bolton committed to Cumberland University in Lebanon, Tennessee, until receiving an inquiry from the Red Sox to see if he would sign with the team if they drafted him.7 Boston scout George Digby had seen Bolton pitch while at Antioch, only because Digby had traveled to Nashville to buy a car.8
The June 1980 major-league draft saw Darryl Strawberry taken by the Mets with the first overall pick. Boston’s first selection came in the second round; the team picked pitcher Mike Brown of Clemson University. Notable Red Sox selections included pitchers Al Nipper and Oil Can Boyd, selected in the 8th and 16th rounds, respectively. Bolton was taken by Boston in the 20th round, as the 518th pick.
His first assignment was Elmira in the New York-Penn League. The Pioneers went 39-35 in 1980 with a roster of over 30 players ranging from 16 to 22 years old. Bolton (then 18), Tom McCarthy (19), and Oil Can Boyd (20) were the only players eventually to appear in the majors. Bolton spent time as the team’s closer, which he attributed simply to being able to throw strikes.9 He made one start, coming in the team’s last game of the year; he was perfect through 6 1/3 innings and lost the no-hitter with two outs in the ninth.10 He went 6-2 with a 2.41 ERA for the season, along with five saves. But the experience was a challenge – Bolton, told that he wouldn’t need a car, ended up having to rely on taxis or rides from friends because he lived seven miles from the ballpark.11
Bolton spent the next two seasons with the Winter Haven Red Sox of the Class A Florida State League (FSL). Winter Haven manager Tom Kotchman noted that Bolton was a control-type pitcher and “a Tommy John type” when he was named an FSL all-star in July 1982.12
Bolton spent most of the next three seasons in Double A with the New Britain Red Sox. In 1983, he earned a promotion to the team’s top affiliate, the Pawtucket Red Sox. It did not go well – a 6.52 ERA and 0-5 record in six Triple-A starts. Years later, Bolton said he wasn’t prepared for Triple A and didn’t throw well. He also noted that he had just come off the disabled list.13 In the offseason, Bolton’s father died suddenly.14 With a diminished interest in baseball, Bolton’s next two seasons were mediocre.15 Back at New Britain, he went a combined 9-11 during 1984 and 1985.
Following the 1985 season, Bolton considered leaving baseball to work full-time at his family’s cabinet shop, but was persuaded to stick with baseball by Pawtucket manager Ed Nottle.16 During spring training, on St. Patrick’s Day of 1986, Bolton was hit by a line drive during batting practice. He suffered a broken jaw, which kept him sidelined until late May.17 As he later recalled, being away from baseball for those months, “I realized how much it meant to me.”18 After recovering, he made 29 appearances (seven starts) for Pawtucket, going 3-4 with a 2.72 ERA and two saves.
In 1987, Bolton was initially with Pawtucket, where he made five appearances (four starts), going 2-1. Early in the season, the Red Sox played a charity exhibition game against the New York Mets at Shea Stadium. It was the second charity game between the teams in less than a year. A previous such game had been played at Fenway Park a month before the teams squared off in the 1986 World Series. For the game of May 7, 1987, Red Sox manager John McNamara had Steve Crawford pitch the first inning. Then Bolton, on loan from Pawtucket, went the next six innings, allowing two runs on four hits while striking out four and walking one.19 Although those two runs were the only scoring in the 2-0 Mets win, Dan Shaughnessy of the Boston Globe noted, “the Sox are looking for a middle reliever and the Pawtucket lefty did nothing to hurt his cause.”20 On May 9, the big club purchased Bolton’s contract from Pawtucket.21
The Red Sox finished a homestand before Bolton saw his first major-league action. That came on May 17, Boston’s final game of a series against the Twins at the Metrodome. Minnesota was ahead, 5-1, entering the bottom of the sixth, when Bolton replaced Steve Crawford, who had pitched one inning of relief following starter Jeff Sellers. In his first major-league inning, Bolton got his first strikeout (Kirby Puckett) and allowed no runs on a walk and one hit. He also pitched the seventh inning, allowing an unearned run via an error by Wade Boggs. The Red Sox eventually lost the game on a walk-off two-run homer by Kent Hrbek in the bottom of the 10th.
Bolton made three additional appearances in May, 12 in June, and 13 more through the end of the season. He had one decision, getting the win on July 25 at Fenway against the Mariners. Bolton held the Mariners scoreless over the final five innings as the Red Sox rallied from a 5-5 tie to an 11-5 win. “The sinker was working and that’s definitely my best pitch,” he told reporters after the game.22 In his 29 appearances with the 1987 Red Sox, all in relief, Bolton registered a 4.38 ERA. Boston finished in fifth place in the AL East with a 78-84 record.
During the 1988 season, Bolton was with Pawtucket through mid-June. With Boston from June 16 through the end of the season, he made 28 relief appearances, compiling a 4.75 ERA and a 1-3 record. He also notched the first, and ultimately only, save of his major-league career, pitching the final three innings of a 16-4 home win over the Tigers on August 13. The Red Sox finished atop the AL East at 89-73 and faced the Oakland A’s (104-58) in the ALCS. Bolton was included on the postseason roster.23 However, he did not see action as the A’s swept the series in four games.
Bolton had seen doctors prior to the 1988 season, owing to back problems and flu symptoms. A doctor in Tennessee diagnosed a urinary tract infection and recommended surgery, but a second opinion led to medication that delayed an operation, saving his season. In December 1988, he had the surgery. Bolton later explained that the operation removed a significant amount of “old urine that was probably poisoning my body.”24
To start the 1989 season, Bolton was back in Pawtucket. He pitched effectively there, going 12-5 with a 2.89 ERA. He was not called up to Boston until early August, with the Red Sox hovering around .500. He got four starts, losing each of them and experiencing difficulties like those he had when moving up from Double A to Triple A in 1983. The four starts were the first of Bolton’s major-league career, and they came under a different Red Sox manager: Joe Morgan, who had taken over from John McNamara at the All-Star break the prior season. Bolton would later say, via an article by Nick Cafardo of the Boston Globe, that McNamara had considered him only a “fringe pitcher with no real chance of being a consistent starter.”25 The 1989 Red Sox finished in third place in the AL East, at 83–79.
A lockout early in 1990 caused most of spring training to be canceled, and the Red Sox had Bolton start the season in Triple A. En route to Pawtucket, his wife Diane Jones-Bolton went into labor with their first child, and Bolton spent several days with her in Nashville.26 When he joined the PawSox, he immediately started a game in Syracuse and developed tendinitis, spending several weeks on the minor-league disabled list.27 After coming off the DL in mid-June, he was called up to Boston. In a July 1 home game against the Rangers, starter Wes Gardner was chased after just two-thirds of an inning, having allowed four runs on five hits. Bolton came on in relief and retired the first 18 batters he faced, going 7 1/3 innings in relief while holding the Rangers to three singles. The Red Sox tallied 15 runs, giving him the win.
Bolton was added to the rotation in mid-July and went on to pitch a career-high 119 2/3 major-league innings for the season, winning 10 games against five losses. “The biggest difference,” he explained, “is I’m throwing my curveball over the plate.”28 He had three complete games in 16 starts for the Red Sox, recording a 3.38 ERA in 21 appearances. In a September interview, Bolton reflected on his career to that point. “Now, all the time in the minors seems worth it.”29
At 88-74, the 1990 Red Sox finished two games ahead of the Toronto Blue Jays for the AL East title. One of Bolton’s best performances came down the stretch: on September 27, he gave up just one unearned run in seven innings as Boston beat Detroit, 3-2. Bolton got the win, snapping a personal three-game losing streak, and it kept the Red Sox in a tie with the Jays. “This was certainly my most rewarding victory, coming at this time of the season. And I needed it for my confidence after a rough road trip,” commented Bolton after the game.30
As they had in 1988, Boston squared off against the Athletics (103-59) in the ALCS – and again, Oakland swept the series in four games. In the only postseason appearances of his major-league career, Bolton pitched twice in relief for a total of three scoreless innings.
On April 11, in his first appearance of the 1991 season, Bolton pitched an effective 5 1/3 innings of relief following the inauspicious Red Sox debut of Danny Darwin. Bolton was soon added to the rotation, which also included Roger Clemens and Matt Young, and remained there until July when he lost his spot to Joe Hesketh.31 His ERA stood at 4.62 when he was removed from the rotation on July 7. When in the rotation, Bolton had received some notably poor run support – in three consecutive starts he made beginning on May 29, the Red Sox were outscored 18-0, being shut out by the Yankees, Angels, and Athletics.32
Shortly after being relegated to the bullpen, Bolton went on the disabled list with a back issue.33 He missed a month and returned in the second half of August, finishing the season with three bullpen appearances and three late-season starts. For the season, he posted a 5.24 ERA and an 8-9 record. Boston finished the season at 84-78, seven games behind Toronto.
Bolton had made $290,000 in 1991. In the offseason, he asked for $710,000 for 1992; the Red Sox offered $335,000. In February, a compromise of $470,000 was reached, avoiding arbitration.34 Bolton began the 1992 season in Boston’s bullpen, as Joe Hesketh remained in the rotation. Nick Cafardo wrote in the Globe in early April that Red Sox general manager Lou Gorman was looking to trade Bolton.35 New Red Sox manager Butch Hobson used Bolton 21 times through early July as the All-Star break approached. On July 9, with Boston in fifth place in the AL East, Gorman sent Bolton to the Cincinnati Reds in exchange for outfielder Billy Hatcher.36
Bolton joined a Cincinnati team that was atop the NL West, five games ahead of the Atlanta Braves. Reds manager Lou Piniella had wanted to go with 11 pitchers on his roster, and adding Bolton gave him three lefties and three righties in the bullpen.37 It also saved the Reds money: Hatcher’s salary of $1,675,000 was more than $1 million higher than Bolton’s. Bolton quipped that while he was from the South, he was happy to be heading north in the standings.38
By July 20, the Braves had pulled to within a game of the Reds.39 Bolton was given three starts in July and five in August, going 2-3 with three no-decisions in those eight starts. By the end of August, the Reds had faded and trailed the Braves by 6 1/2 games, and Bolton finished the season working in relief. In his 16 total appearances (eight starts) for Cincinnati, he compiled a 5.24 ERA and a 3-3 record.
Bolton was released by the Reds at the end of November but signed a one-year contract with the Detroit Tigers for $400,000 on December 10.40
The 1993 Tigers roster included Kirk Gibson, who had last played for Detroit in 1987. Bolton noted that he had once struck Gibson, out then watched him “break bats and fling things around.”41 In February, manager Sparky Anderson said that Bolton would start for the Tigers.42 After a difficult spring training, however (5.20 ERA), Anderson decided to begin the season with Bolton in the bullpen.43 The Tigers also added David Wells to their rotation in early April, after he had been released by the Blue Jays.44
Detroit started strong, ending April and May leading the AL East, but the Blue Jays passed the Tigers on June 26. Anderson’s squad went on to finish 10 games back, tied for third in the division with the Baltimore Orioles. Bolton made a career-high 43 appearances, including eight starts, and finished with a 6-6 record and 4.47 ERA. In mid-September, Anderson said he wanted Bolton back for another season.45 That December, the team agreed to terms with Bolton on a one-year contract for 1994 worth $550,000.46
In February 1994, Anderson said he wanted to go with a 10-man pitching staff, and that nine of the spots were accounted for. The list of nine did not include Bolton – he and several other pitchers were left to compete for a place on the roster.47 On March 15, in what Anderson called “a business move,” the Tigers cut both Bolton and Mark Leiter. That allowed the team to pay Bolton only $90,000 (Leiter received $66,000) rather than the full contract amount.48 Bolton said he felt another team would want him; being in Florida for spring training, he used the free time to take his family to Disney World.49
In late March, the Orioles signed Bolton to a minor-league contract and assigned him to the Rochester Red Wings. Although back in Triple A, Bolton remarked that he was happy to be with the team, saying, “as long as you’re wearing a uniform, you’ve got a chance.”50 He got that chance when his contract was purchased by the Orioles during the first week of May.51 Bolton began his time with Baltimore by allowing just a single hit and no runs through his first five appearances, but then allowed four earned runs in his next 4 1/3 innings of work. In June, manager Johnny Oates said he still had confidence in Bolton, despite a mix of good and bad outings.52
On July 30, with the Orioles hosting the Blue Jays, Bolton made a relief appearance and walked the only batter he faced, outfielder Rob Butler. That turned out to be Bolton’s final major-league game. In 209 appearances at the top level (56 starts), he had amassed a 31-34 record with a 4.56 ERA while striking out 336 batters in 540 1/3 innings pitched.
Bolton was briefly outrighted back to Rochester.53 His contract was repurchased by the Orioles on August 12.54 However, that was also the day that the 1994-95 major-league players’ strike began, ultimately wiping out the postseason and lasting into spring training. Bolton, being on Baltimore’s big-league roster, had his salary suspended during the strike. With a major-league contract of $300,000 for the season (fourth-lowest on the Orioles roster), each canceled game cost him $1,639 in lost wages.55
On October 11, 1994, Bolton opted to become a free agent rather than accepting a minor-league assignment with Baltimore.56 After the strike ended in April 1995, Bolton was back home near Nashville, still without a team. He reached out to Larry Schmittou, president of the Nashville Sounds, a Triple-A affiliate of the Chicago White Sox in the American Association.57 Bolton was asked to throw for the Sounds’ pitching coach, and soon was added to their roster.58 He made his first appearance for the team on June 1.59 Bolton (then 33) gave the Sounds four left-handed former major-league pitchers in their 30s. The others were Steve Wilson (30), Dave Righetti (36), and Atlee Hammaker (37).60 The Sounds finished their season with a 68-76 record, sixth in the eight-team American Association. Hammaker and Righetti got called up by the White Sox, appearing in 13 and 10 games, respectively. Bolton went 5-7 for the Sounds in 19 appearances (17 starts) with a 4.43 ERA.
During spring training 1996, Bolton was released by the White Sox organization. Days later, he signed with the Pittsburgh Pirates, who assigned him to their Triple-A affiliate in the Pacific Coast League, the Calgary Cannons.61 As a result, Bolton went from living minutes from his team’s ballpark to being 1,700 miles away from his family.
In August, as the Cannons were competing for a PCL playoff spot, the Pirates (en route to finishing last in the NL Central) called up various pitchers and position players. Because Bolton could start or pitch out of the Calgary bullpen, he was called “a pitching coach’s dream.”62 While he made a solid contribution to the Cannons, Bolton was not impressed with the state of major-league pitching. He remarked, “I’m disgusted with seeing guys pitching who don’t deserve to be there.”63 He also said that, unless he made it back to the majors, he wanted to pitch closer to home the following season.64 The Cannons fell short in their push for the PCL postseason, but Bolton’s performance (12-5 with a 4.02 ERA in 40 appearances, including 14 starts) led the Pirates to re-sign him for another season.65
Early in the 1997 season, the Calgary Herald ran a short profile of Bolton. He stated that he didn’t expect to be called up by the Pirates, but he was looking forward to the major leagues’ expansion the following season to Arizona and Tampa Bay.66 He went 2-6 in eight starts with an 8.29 ERA for the Cannons, and on May 22 was given his release. Bolton said he would first go home to spend time with his family – but he was still willing to pitch, “as long as somebody’s willing to give me a uniform.”67
That somebody was the Columbia Mules, based about 40 miles southeast of Nashville in the independent Heartland League. Bolton made four starts for the Mules, going 2-0 with a 0.33 ERA. By the end of June, he had been added to the roster of the Tucson Toros, the PCL affiliate of the Milwaukee Brewers.68 He finished the season with the Toros, making 15 appearances (seven starts) while posting a 3-4 record with a 6.00 ERA.
For the 1998 season, Bolton reconnected with the Nashville Sounds, still a Triple-A club but by then affiliated with the Pirates and a member of the PCL. Trent Jewett, who had managed Calgary during Bolton’s time there, had come to manage Nashville. Initially, Bolton was listed as a pitcher during spring training.69 As it developed, he spent most of the season on the coaching staff, until being activated at the end of August.70 In three appearances (one start) he went 1-1 and allowed five earned runs in 4 1/3 innings. After pitching for a dozen different teams over 19 seasons, including 346 minor-league games, Bolton had ended his career pitching in his hometown.
Bolton had met his wife, Diane, in upstate New York while he was pitching for New Britain.71 They raised three children – two sons (Kevin and Eric) and a daughter (Kelly) – in the Nashville area.72 After retiring from baseball, Bolton worked in the family cabinetry business, then became a real estate developer specializing in residential real estate. He also took up golf and was an instructor at a baseball academy in Nashville.
Diane Bolton started running marathons, and both Boltons were in Boston during the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. Diane was approximately 25 miles into the race and Tom was waiting for her downtown when the bombs detonated. Fortunately, both escaped injury.74
In a 2011 interview, when asked to reflect on his career, Bolton highlighted his years in the minor leagues, stating that he was most proud that he had persevered to reach the majors.75 He added one of his mother’s sayings: “I was too lazy to work, and too scared to steal.”76
Last revised: June 19, 2022
This story was reviewed by Bill Nowlin and Rory Costello and fact-checked by Bill Johnson.
In addition to the sources cited in the Notes, the author relied on Baseball-Reference.com and retrosheet.org.
1 “Obituary of William Calvin Bolton,” Tennessean (Nashville), October 12, 1983: 13. Sea Willow Bolton obituary, April 25, 2022 (https://www.woodbinefuneralhome.com/obituary/sea-willow-bolton). Obituary of Meredith Brock (Sea Willow Bolton’s brother), June 15, 2020 (https://laynefuneralhome.com/tribute/details/1313/Meredith-Brock/obituary.html).
3 Pam Sherborne, “Overton, Antioch aces come home again,” Tennessean (Nashville), May 2, 2008: O4.
4 Cindy Smith, “Antioch Claims AAA State Title,” Tennessean, June 5, 1979: 21.
5 Sherborne (2008).
7 Traughber (2011).
8 Steve Fainaru, “Red Sox’ Bolton proves better late,” Boston Globe, August 17, 1990: 77, 81.
9 Traughber (2011).
10 “Bolton shuts out Mets on two hits,” Star-Gazette (Elmira, New York), August 29, 1980: 20.
11 Traughber (2011).
12 “Lefty Rates Some Rave Notices By Manager,” Tampa Tribune, July 24, 1982: 22.
13 Traughber (2011).
14 Fainaru (1990).
15 Fainaru (1990).
16 Fainaru (1990).
17 Fainaru (1990).
18 Fainaru (1990).
19 Dan Shaughnessy, “Red Sox charitable,” Boston Globe, May 8, 1987: 50.
20 Shaughnessy (1987).
21 “Transactions,” Boston Globe, May 10, 1987: 84.
22 Associated Press, “Sox give fans look at future in 11-5 victory,” Sunday Sun-Journal (Lewiston, Maine), . July 26, 1987: C1.
23 “Red Sox, A’s statistics,” Boston Globe, October 5, 1988: 126.
24 Fainaru (1990).
25 Nick Cafardo, “Bolton shines in the shadows,” Boston Globe, April 12, 1991: 55.
26 Traughber (2011).
27 Nick Cafardo, “Minor League Notebook,” Boston Globe, May 27, 1990: 55.
28 Score 1991 baseball card no. 781.
29 Associated Press, “Harris, Bolton pay dividends as pitchers for Red Sox,”, Tennessean. September 4, 1990: 20.
30 “Red Sox 3, Tigers 2,” United Press International, September 27, 1990 (https://www.upi.com/Archives/1990/09/27/Red-Sox-3-Tigers-2/5371654408000/)
31 “Around the Horn,” Tennessean, July 12, 1991: 83.
32 “Lost Unit of the week,” Philadelphia Inquirer, July 11, 1999: 48.
33 “Red Sox Notebook: Bolton hurting,” Boston Globe, July 22, 1991: 26.
34 “Bolton, Red Sox reach deal,” Tennessean, February 7, 1992: 69.
35 Nick Cafardo, “Red Sox Notebook,” Boston Globe, April 1, 1992: 59.
36 Nick Cafardo, “Red Sox take a pounding,” Boston Globe, July 10, 1992: 79.
37 John Erardi, “Reds deal Hatcher for insurance,” Cincinnati Enquirer, July 10, 1992: 42.
38 Erardi (1992).
39 “Cincinnati pins hopes on Bolton,” Tennessean, July 20, 1992: 16.
40 “Tigers ink Bolton,” Tennessean, December 11, 1992: 28.
41 Dave George, “Gibson’s back for better or worse, but definitely for good,” Palm Beach Post, February 24, 1993: 81.
42 John Lowe, “Signs look good for Tigers in ’93, beyond,” Detroit Free Press, February 20, 1993: 21.
43 Gene Guidi, “Tigers stop in Canada before 6 in California,” Detroit Free Press, April 3, 1993: 75.
44 Tom Gage, “Wells signs with Tigers, lured by assurance he’ll start,” Detroit Free Press, April 4, 1993: 43.
45 Gene Guidi, “Bettin’ On Bolton,” Detroit Free Press, September 14, 1993: 30.
46 “Tigers keep four off market,” Detroit Free Press, December 21, 1993: 22.
47 Tom Gage, “Ilitch plans on-site look,” Detroit Free Press, February 20, 1994: 5E.
48 Associated Press, “Strictly business: Tigers waive veteran pitchers Leiter, Bolton,” Battle Creek Enquirer, March 16, 1994: 17.
49 Gene Guidi, “Leiter, Bolton expect to catch on elsewhere,” Detroit Free Press, March 18, 1994: 38.
50 Jim Mandelaro, “Bolton assigned to Wings,” Democrat and Chronicle (Rochester, New York), March 28, 1994: 25.
51 Tom Keegan, “Orioles update,” Baltimore Sun, May 6, 1994: 50.
52 Tom Keegan, “Notebook: Bolton slumping,” Baltimore Sun, June 21, 1994: 86.
53 Tom Keegan, “Rhodes starts on path to Cooperstown, sort of,” Baltimore Sun, August 1, 1994: 26.
54 Tom Keegan, “Notebook: Rhodes, Benitez optioned,” Baltimore Sun, August 12, 1994: 50.
55 “Striking Out,” Baltimore Sun, August 19, 1994: 7C.
56 AssociatedPress, “Tuesday’s Sports Transactions,” Star-Democrat (Easton, Maryland), October 12, 1994: 18.
57 Larry Woody, “Bolton happy he’s throwing at home,” Tennessean, June 7, 1995: 21.
58 Woody (1995).
59 “Indians’ rally sinks Sounds 5-4,” Tennessean, June 2, 1995: 28.
60 Anthony Coleman, “Lefties never leave,” Tennessean, June 13, 1995: 60.
61 “Bolton to Bucs,” Tennessean, March 30, 1996: 26.
62 Gyle Konotopetz, “Guns short of ammo for stretch drive,” Calgary Herald, August 2, 1996: 62.
63 Gyle Konotopetz, “Veterans face age-old problem,” Calgary Herald, August 7, 1996: 3.
64 Konotopetz, “Veterans face age-old problem.”
65 “Transactions,” Cincinnati Enquirer, October 18, 1996: 4.
66 Gyle Konotopetz, “Diamond Desire,” Calgary Herald, April 12, 1997: 7.
67 Gyle Konotopetz, “Pirates release Bolton,” Calgary Herald, May 23, 1997: 51.
68 Steve Rivera, “Toros Notebook,” Tucson Citizen, June 27, 1997: 48.
69 “Nashville Sounds roster,” Tennessean, April 7, 1998: 32.
70 Maurice Patton, “Sounds update,” Tennessean, September 1, 1998: 20.
71 Heidi Hall, “Marathon runner reflects on fateful decisions,” Tennessean, April 18, 2013, https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/04/18/marathon-runner-fateful-decisions/2095411/
72 Hall (2013).
73 Sherborne (2008).
74 Hall (2013).
75 Traughber (2011).
76 Traughber (2011).