In a nine-year career spent with three teams, outfielder Tito Landrum never received more than 205 official at-bats in a season. Yet he earned two World Series rings and was a League Championship Series hero for both the 1983 Orioles and 1985 Cardinals.
Terry Lee Landrum was born on October 25, 1954 in Joplin. Missouri. His parents, Bobby and Mary (Watson) Landrum, were both from Galena, Kansas, about seven miles west. Because his father was a Technical Sergeant in the United States Air Force, Terry’s family moved frequently during his childhood, to 10 states1 including Nebraska, Illinois, and Texas.2 At various times, “home” also included Japan, the Philippines, and Thailand, where he played baseball in fields of rice paddies.3
When Landrum reached the big leagues, reporters frequently noted his propensity to say, “thank you” and address people as “sir” or “ma’am.” He explained, “My mom and dad raised me to respect other people.”4 That echoed a previous remark: “I’ve been blessed by the way my parents raised me.”5 Eventually, the family settled in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where his father retired and became the state’s 1978 horseshoe pitching champion.6 Landrum grew up to love bass fishing, along with jazz and R & B music.
As a 15-year-old, he played Babe Ruth League baseball and batted .450.7 Mostly, he pitched, earning occasional mentions in the local newspaper for outstanding performances like striking out 14 hitters and stroking two doubles.8 Sometimes he manned the catcher’s position.9
At Highland High School, Landrum played some football. The day before his 16th birthday, for example, he ran 68 yards for one touchdown and returned a punt 82 yards for another.10 When Highland won the AAAA basketball championship during his senior year, the 5-foot-11, 175-pound Landrum was the school’s only selection for the state’s North-South All-Star game.11 It was in track and field, however, that he really starred, running sprints and relays plus competing in the long jump. As a junior, his time of 9.6 seconds in the 100-yard dash tied the state record.12 He was Highland’s track MVP during his 1972 senior season and just missed winning the state’s grueling, 10-day decathlon competition. Landrum finished second only because he failed to earn any points in the pole vault.13
He didn’t play baseball at Highland, however. The sport wasn’t a big deal locally then; he also explained that he was busy, “working for gas money for my car.”14 Landrum described his entry into professional ball as follows. “A scout who’d seen me play previously said, ‘If you get on a summer team, I’ll come back and watch you and possibly get you a scholarship to a junior college in Oklahoma’.”15
“The scout was Danny Doyle,” recalled Don Brown, Landrum’s baseball coach at Eastern Oklahoma State College. “Once I saw [Landrum] run and play, there wasn’t much question he was going to be outstanding…Word got around fast. There were 17 pro scouts at one game.”16 The Cardinals signed him as an outfielder on October 10, 1972.
He started with the Single-A Orangeburg (South Carolina) Cardinals in 1973. The Jimmy Piersall-managed club finished with the worst record in the six-team Western Carolinas League, but Landrum paced the team with 21 stolen bases and batted .279, including a streak of nine consecutive hits.17 None of his teammates reached the majors, though outfielder Randy Poffo later gained fame as “Macho Man” Randy Savage of the World Wrestling Federation. “I remember coming in the clubhouse and him making these mock rings,” Landrum described. “He would get in there with some of the other players and they would do these little wrestling choreographed shows for us and it was always quite entertaining.”18
That summer Landrum also gained a nickname from the players with whom he shared a trailer. “I was living with one gentleman from Mexico, one from Puerto Rico and one from the Dominican Republic,” he explained. “The Jackson Five was real popular then, and one of the Jackson Five happened to be named Tito. They were learning English. They related me to Tito, and the name just stuck with me.”19
As a result, some people mistakenly assumed that Landrum was Latino. “I get, ‘Como está usted, amigo?’ all the time,” he said. “Once a guy asked me what part of South America I’m from. I said, ‘Joplin.’”20 He added, “I’m Terry in the winter.”21
After his first season, Landrum reported to the Florida Instructional League to learn the Cardinal Way from George Kissell. He was one of a handful of prospects tutored by St. Louis’s star speedster, Lou Brock.22
In 1974, Landrum led the St. Petersburg Cardinals of the Single-A Florida State League with nine triples, but he was batting only .236 in July when a damaged meniscus ended his season prematurely.23 Back at St. Petersburg in 1975, he led the league champions with 11 homers, but his average slipped to .221. “People used to say, ‘Tito, if you just hit .260 or .240, we’ve got a place for you in our outfield.’ Well, I couldn’t even do that,” he recalled. “I had a lot of trouble hitting the curveball.”24
He spent most of 1976 with the Arkansas Travelers in the Double-A Texas League and raised his batting average to .276. In nine games with the Tulsa Oilers of the Triple-A American Association, he held his own and the Cardinals promoted him to their 40-man winter roster.
After he started 1977 with just a .214 average in 26 games at Arkansas, however, he was demoted to St. Petersburg, where he hit .245 against Single-A pitching. “I was terrible,” he said.25 Things got worse that off-season when he tore muscles under his right arm trying to break up a dispute. Nevertheless, the Cardinals didn’t give up on him. “I guess it was because of my speed and defensive ability, but I didn’t think I’d be able to throw again,” he confessed.26
Landrum remained positive, even when he found himself in St. Petersburg for the fourth time in five seasons. “I was making $500 a month for 5½ months every year. It wasn’t easy…But I never thought of giving up baseball,” he recalled.27 He described one of the winter jobs he found to supplement his income, “I was a security guard at Maas Brothers Department Store…I think I got $5.80 an hour. I finally quit after somebody pulled a knife on me.”28
With his arm strength rebuilt from playing racquetball, he enjoyed an all-star 1978, batting .297 and leading the Florida State League with 25 doubles and a career-high 68 steals. That October, he married Teresa Sweet. They met at a St. Petersburg dance club.
Landrum began 1979 in Double-A with the Arkansas Travelers of the Texas League but advanced to the Springfield [Illinois] Redbirds of the Triple-A American Association in late June. Overall, he played 132 games and hit .264. In 1980, he improved to .314 with 11 home runs by July 21, when the Cardinals called him up to the majors to fill in for injured veteran Bobby Bonds.29
That evening at Busch Stadium, he grounded back to the pitcher as a pinch-hitter in his debut. Two nights later in San Diego, Landrum made his first start, playing left field and batting second against former Cy Young Award winner Randy Jones. He went 4-for-5 in a one-run Cardinals victory. The rookie remarked, “It took eight long years, but it was all worth it.”30
When Bonds returned to the active roster, Landrum went back to the minors and helped Springfield win the American Association championship. He rejoined the Cardinals in September, started at each outfield position, and finished his first major-league season with a .247 average.
Shortly before spring training 1981, he became a first-time father when his wife delivered daughter Melissa. Landrum spent the entire year in the majors as a reserve outfielder. St. Louis compiled the NL East’s best overall record but missed the playoffs in the split season declared by the commissioner following a lengthy players’ strike. When Landrum’s checks from his $32,500 major-league minimum salary stopped arriving, his agent helped him land a management trainee opportunity at a restaurant owned by St. Louis developer Norman K. Probstein.
That winter, he batted .273 for the Venezuelan League’s Cardenales de Lara. Landrum topped the team in extra-base hits and matched future AL home run champion Jesse Barfield for the club lead in homers.31
Landrum and his wife welcomed a second daughter, Julie, before the 1982 season. Meanwhile, the Cardinals had added outfielders Lonnie Smith and Willie McGee in trades and planned to start 21-year-old phenom David Green in center field. Nevertheless, Landrum made the team as a backup. “I was not an everyday player, so I had to go early for practice,” he recalled. “I would stay late and listen to everybody. I accepted criticism. That was the only way to learn.”32
On May 13 in Atlanta, in his 215th career at-bat, Landrum clubbed his first big-league homer. “To be honest, the high that goes with it is that neither the manager nor any players ever gave up on me,” he insisted. “[Coach] Dave Ricketts would throw me 100 or 200 balls every day. And guys were coming up to me and saying, “Hang in there.”33 Thirteen days later, he went deep again.
Though he was in the majors for the entire season except for 3½ weeks in August, he started only a dozen times and received only 72 at-bats. “Gene Tenace keeps my head above water,” he said. “If I start having a letdown, he comes over and kicks my rear end.”34 As the Cardinals closed in on the division title in September, Landrum tied one comeback win in Los Angeles with a ninth-inning RBI single and scored the decisive tally in a one-run victory over the Pirates. He wasn’t on the postseason roster but worked out with the team and received a ring after St. Louis won the World Series.
Landrum led the Venezuelan League with a .345 batting average that winter and slugged .559 for Lara. He was back in the minors less than a month into the 1983 season, however, after losing his roster spot to rookie infielder Rafael Santana because of the Cardinals’ concerns about second baseman Tom Herr’s knees.
Landrum batted .292 with a career-high 18 homers and an American Association-leading 12 triples for the Louisville Redbirds. Unfortunately, since he was out of options, the Cardinals risked losing him altogether for the $25,000 waiver claim price if they tried to recall him.35 Consequently, he remained in Triple-A even after St. Louis lost starting left fielder Lonnie Smith to drug rehab for a month. The Cardinals filled the void by trading for Floyd Rayford, who’d been similarly frozen at Baltimore’s Triple-A affiliate.
Landrum’s 11th year in the Cardinals organization ended when was sent to the Orioles to complete the Rayford deal on August 31. He joined the AL East leaders only hours before the deadline to set postseason rosters. “I figured they must think highly of me if they wanted me eligible,” he said.36
Nevertheless, since Landrum became Baltimore’s eighth outfielder, it wasn’t clear what his role would be. General manager Hank Peters admitted that the Orioles would have preferred to add another infielder, but remarked, “Tito was simply the best player available.”37
After Landrum appeared in 26 of the last 34 regular-season games and hit .310 in 42 at-bats, fellow outfielder John Lowenstein observed, “Tito belongs on this team. He is typical of what we’re all about.”38
“I knew they were good guys right away,” Landrum said of his new teammates. “They included me in the jokes, made me feel at home.”39
In the first three games of the ALCS against the White Sox, he pinch-ran, pinch-hit, and started in place of injured right fielder Dan Ford as Baltimore seized a two-games-to-one lead in the best-of-five series. With Ford still hobbling and Chicago pitching southpaw Britt Burns, Landrum expected to be in the lineup for Game Four when his mother telephoned him in his hotel room the night before the contest. “Mom prayed that I’d hit a home run,” he recalled. “But I told her I wasn’t a home run hitter and that she should only pray that I’d have good concentration.”40
Despite Baltimore’s advantage in the series, the pressure on the Orioles intensified as Game Four moved into extra innings without any score. A Baltimore loss would force them to face LaMarr Hoyt — a 24-game winner who’d dominated them in the series opener — in the finale. The Orioles had managed only five singles against Burns by the time Landrum came to the plate with one out in the top of the tenth. He was determined to hit the ball up the middle after coach Ralph Rowe reminded him that he’d been pulling off the ball in his last two at-bats.41 On the NBC broadcast, announcer Tony Kubek told viewers that Landrum was “not the deep threat.”42
Landrum, however, pulled a 1-0 fastball through a 20-mph wind into the second row of Comiskey Park’s left-field upper deck.43 After the Orioles tacked on two more runs against Chicago’s bullpen, the home run proved to be the blow that clinched the American League pennant. “Pinch me before I get out of here and make me believe it really happened,” he said.44
Ford returned to Baltimore’s lineup in the World Series against the Phillies, so Landrum appeared only as a pinch-runner and defensive replacement. When the Orioles won it all in Game Five, he snared the first out in the bottom of the ninth with a long run into the right-field corner at Veterans Stadium.
Landrum enjoyed a strong spring training in 1984 but, ten days before Opening Day, Baltimore traded him back to the Cardinals for a minor-league pitcher. “It was a move made with a great deal of reluctance,” insisted Peters. “But we were caught in a numbers game and somebody had to go.”45
“It’s a large pill for me to swallow,” said Landrum. “Eddie Murray had become a close personal friend, and the shortstop [Cal Ripken] has been a big boost for me, just to watch him go out and play every day with his enthusiasm.”46
Five days later, St. Louis sent Rayford back to the Orioles, and an unnamed Baltimore source said the players had simply been loaned for each other.47 “From what I was told, I was the player-to-be-named-later in my own trade,” Landrum said.48 ”If it is a merry-go-round, at least the people pushing it are people I know,” he told another reporter.49
Prior to his return, 1981 had been the only year in which Landrum avoided the minors completely, but he became a full-time big-leaguer for the next four years and established himself as a dependable reserve. “He’s the perfect extra man because he knows his role, and he accepts his role,” Cardinals manager Whitey Herzog observed.50
During his first two years back with the Cardinals, Landrum batted .354 as a pinch-hitter with three homers in 48 at-bats. He appeared in a career-high 105 games in 1984 and blasted what victimized Mets pitcher Jesse Orosco called “a 700-foot home run” for the only walk-off round-tripper of his career on July 30.51 “Maturity is wonderful, and the fact that I’m getting to play, I really think that I’m a lot better ballplayer than I was,” Landrum said.52
Though the righty-hitting Landrum batted .282 against right-handed pitching in his career (vs. a .238 mark vs. southpaws), he spent most of 1985 platooning with lefty-hitting Andy Van Slyke in right field. Sometimes, he even wore a “Tanto Van Slandrum” t-shirt featuring a two-headed caricature of the players.53 For a Cardinals club that won 101 regular-season games, he kept things loose by occasionally covering himself with shaving cream to become “Vapor Man” in the locker room.54 The handsome Landrum, who worked as a model during off-seasons, was most admired by some St. Louis fans because of a topless poster that he posed for. It was sold at Busch Stadium’s concession stands.55
His most important contributions to the 1985 Cardinals, however, came after rookie sensation Vince Coleman got caught in Busch’s mechanical tarpaulin before Game Four of the NLCS against the Dodgers and missed the rest of the postseason with a leg injury. St. Louis was already trailing the best-of-seven series two games to one, but Landrum stepped into the lineup that night and tied two NLCS records by going 4-for-5 and stroking two hits in the same inning of a Redbirds victory.56 “Being thrown in at the last moment probably helped me out,” he said. “I had no jitters. No time to be nervous.”57
The Cardinals advanced to meet the Royals in the World Series and Landrum kept playing well. He scored the go-ahead run after doubling in Game One and caught the final out in foul territory. In Game Two, he threw out a runner at home plate to keep St. Louis close in the seventh and doubled off the end of his bat during St. Louis’s winning, ninth-inning rally.58 When the Cardinals seized a three-games-to-one advantage with a 3-0 win in Game Four, even Herzog was surprised that Landrum’s homer to open the scoring off Bud Black was hit to the opposite field. “The pitch was perfect, but maybe the Kansas City scouting report wasn’t,” remarked Landrum “Maybe I’ve proved their book is wrong, that I’m something more than a dead pull hitter.”59 At that point, St. Louis had won six of seven contests since losing Coleman, with Landrum hitting a robust .407.
Landrum turned 31 on the travel day between Game Five and Game Six and finished the seven-game World Series with a .360 average after batting .429 in the NLCS. “I never dreamed I’d be playing as big a role,” he said. “I’d thought I’d be watching and maybe pinch-hitting and playing some defensively.”61 Despite coming within two outs of a second championship in four years, however, St. Louis lost the last three contests and the series to the Royals.
In 1986, Landrum started a personal best 48 games and received a career-high 205 at-bats but struggled against lefties and hit only .211 overall. Off the field, he went through a divorce. Determined to rebound, he bulked up to 191 pounds through an off-season nutrition and exercise program.62 He made his only Opening Day start in 1987, replacing the injured McGee.
Physical ailments were beginning to affect Landrum, too. He’d experienced back spasms in spring training, missed time in ’86 after aggravating a lower-back injury, and been on the disabled list in ’85 after pulling an abdominal muscle.63 On May 1, 1987, a freak foul ball during batting practice fractured his left instep and knocked him out of action for a month.64
After a brief rehab assignment to Louisville, he returned in June but was released on the Fourth of July when the Cardinals opted to go with Jim Lindeman, a younger, former first-round pick with more power. Landrum signed with the Dodgers that week and finished the year in a pinch-hitter/defensive replacement role.
He had to scramble for a new employer after the 1988 season started because Los Angeles released him on Opening Day. Landrum rejoined the Orioles and debuted in the seventh loss of Baltimore’s record-breaking 0-21 start. He went to Triple-A briefly as the team sought a winning combination, but he refused to return to the minors when they asked him to go down again on May 10.65 After being released for the third time in 10 months, he completed the year in the Rangers organization with the Oklahoma City 89ers of the American Association. Despite batting only .253 in 69 games with the Triple-A team, he stood out for his pregame pipe smoking and the breadth of knowledge he displayed when quiz show Jeopardy was on the clubhouse TV.66
Landrum signed with the Pirates in early 1989 but spent the summer with the Reds’ Triple-A Nashville Sounds affiliate, batting .221. That winter, the 35-year-old Landrum was a Senior Professional Baseball Association All-Star, hitting .346 with a league-leading 11 triples for the West Palm Beach Tropics.67 After batting only .152 in 26 games for the Miami Miracle of the Single-A Florida State League in 1990, he was with the SPBA’s St. Peterburg Pelicans when that circuit folded in December.
His 19-year professional baseball career ended with the Mexican League’s Charros de Jalisco in 1991. In 607 major-league games, he batted .249 with 13 home runs. In 19 post-season contests, Landrum went deep two more times and hit .347. “I keep thinking of a guy like Billy Williams,” he reflected. “He played all those years and got all those hits and never had the opportunity to play in a World Series.”68
After baseball, Landrum moved to New York with his longtime companion Carol Williams, an award-winning television producer he’d met when she reported for St. Louis’s CBS affiliate. Their original 1988 marriage plans were interrupted by his release from the Dodgers, but they eventually tied the knot in 2019. She encouraged him to resume his education. “I was frightened because I had been an average student in high school, and had no background in science or math, all the things I hated and, quite honestly, ducked,” he admitted.”69
When Landrum needed back surgery, he’d created his own water-based rehabilitation program. That sparked his interest in becoming a physical therapist.70 Gaining admittance to the School of Education at New York University wasn’t easy, so he said, “When I got the acceptance letter, I felt like I’d won the lottery.”71 NYU’s baseball team also gained a hitting instructor with World Series experience.
As a student, Landrum continued to do the same things that helped him succeed in baseball: arriving early, asking lots of questions and accepting help. He became a senior physical therapist at I.C.E. Sports Physical Therapy and worked at Synergy Worldwide as well. As of 2020, he lived in Calabasas, California with his wife and had five grandchildren. Three of them were fathered by former NBA star Paul Pierce, whom his younger daughter Julie married in 2010.
When Landrum received his Bachelor of Science degree in physical therapy in May 1998, his School of Education peers selected the 43-year-old to be the class valedictorian. He based his remarks at the ceremony on the traditional sermon in which the faster runner stumbles and fails to win the race. “I’ve always identified with the slowest runner,” he explained. “I spent eight long years in the minors. Then I made it to three World Series. Not one of them felt as good as it feels to be here today.”72
Last revised: December 10, 2020
This biography was reviewed by Donna L. Halper and Rory Costello and fact-checked by Kevin Larkin.
1 Wayne Coffey, “Tito Landrum: Postseason Hero To…,” Daily News (New York), October 12,1997: 101.
2 Art Spander, “Landrum’s Hard Work Pays Off Big,” Oklahoman, October 25, 1985, https://oklahoman.com/article/2125498/landrums-hard-work-pays-off-big (last accessed November 1, 2020).
3 Leigh Montville, “Tito Trip Has One Stop Left,” Boston Globe, October 9, 1983: 1.
4 Spander, “Landrum’s Hard Work Pays Off Big.”
5 Rick Hummel, “Nation Learns of Landrum’s Value,” The Sporting News, November 4, 1985: 23.
7 Tito Landrum, 1983 Riley’s Louisville Redbirds card.
8 “Duke City Ruthstars Down SF,” Santa Fe New Mexican, July 30, 1970: 14.
9 “Christensen No Hitter Turned In,” Clovis News-Journal (New Mexico), August 12, 1970: 7.
10 Greg Macaleese, “Santa Fe Clobbers Espanola, 81-6,” Gallup Independent (New Mexico), October 24, 1970: 4.
11 “Toppers Named to All-Star Team,” Santa Fe New Mexican, March 19, 1972: 13.
12 “Final State Track and Field Marks,” Las Vegas (New Mexico) Optic, May 13, 1971: 4.
13 “Greeno Scores 7,535 to Win Decathlon,” Las Vegas Optic, May 22, 1972: 4.
14 George Vecsey, “Sports of the Times; The Player Named Later,” New York Times, October 9, 1983: A6.
15 Volney Meece, “Tito’s Now Incognito Former Big Leaguer on Comeback Trail With 89ers,” Oklahoman ,May 25, 1988, https://oklahoman.com/article/2226903/titos-now-incognito-former-big-leaguer-on-comeback-trail-with-89ers (last accessed November 3, 2020).
16 Dean Bailey, “Landrum Began Career in Wilburton,” Oklahoman ,October 25, 1985, https://oklahoman.com/article/2125534/landrum-began-career-in-wilburton (last accessed November 7, 2020).
17 1984 Baltimore Orioles Media Guide: 135.
18 “’Macho Man’ Randy Savage Remembered By His Baseball Teammate Tito Landrum,” https://www.baseballhappenings.net/2011/05/macho-man-randy-savage-remembered-by.html (last accessed November 4, 2020).
19 Meece, “Tito’s Now Incognito Former Big Leaguer on Comeback Trail With 89ers.”
20 “This Understudy is Stealing Most of the Dramatic Scenes,” Los Angeles Times, October 24, 1985: 1.
21 Vecsey, “Sports of the Times; The Player Named Later.”
22 Neal Russo, “Cards’ Speed Demons Learning from Brock,” The Sporting News, November 24, 1973: 41.
23 “Bad Night on Bases,” The Sporting News, August 17, 1974: 41.
24 Mark Whicker, “The Cardinals Mr. October,” Philadelphia Daily News, October 24, 1985: 113.
25 Rick Hummel, “Landrum Catches Redbirds’ Eye After Eight-Year Wait,” The Sporting News, August 16, 1980: 31.
26 Hummel, “Landrum Catches Redbirds’ Eye After Eight-Year Wait.”
27 Spander, “Landrum’s Hard Work Pays Off Big.”
28 “Galley; The I-70 Series,” Newsday (New York), October 21, 1985: 88.
29 Bob Duffy, “Sports Log,” Boston Globe, July 22, 1980: 1.
30 Rick Hummel, “Landrum Catches Redbirds’ Eye After Eight-Year Wait,” The Sporting News, August 16, 1980: 31.
31 Venezuelan League statistics from http://www.pelotabinaria.com.ve/beisbol/tem_equ.php?EQ=CDL&TE=1981-82 (last accessed November 3, 2020).
32 George Vecsey, “Outfielder, Then College Valedictorian,” New York Times, November 22, 1998: SP4.
33 “Blyleven Bored at Home,” The Sporting News, May 31, 1982: 37.
34 “Cards Can Count on Hustling Tenace,” The Sporting News, August 9, 1982: 14
35 “A Matter of Timing,” The Sporting News, August 22, 1983: 25.
36 Jim Henneman, “Landrum Finds New Role: Hero,” The Sporting News, October 17, 1983: 27.
37 Henneman, “Landrum Finds New Role: Hero.”
38 Henneman, “Landrum Finds New Role: Hero.”
39 Vecsey, “Sports of the Times; The Player Named Later.”
40 Ross Newhan, “Landrum’s Stunning Homer — It Turns out Mother Knew Best,” Los Angeles Times, October 9, 1983: F11.
41 “Tito Can’t Believe Success,” The Sporting News, October 17, 1983: 20.
43 Dave Nightingale, “Little Guys Big Heroes for Orioles,” The Sporting News, October 17, 1983: 15.
44 Henneman, “Landrum Finds New Role: Hero.”
45 Jim Henneman, “Landrum a Victim of Numbers Game,” The Sporting News, April 9, 1984: 15.
46 Henneman, “Landrum a Victim of Numbers Game.”
47 Rick Hummel, “Landrum Delighted to be Back Home,” The Sporting News, April 9, 1984: 22. 4/9/84:22
49 Hummel, “Landrum Delighted to be Back Home.”
50 Hummel, “Nation Learns of Landrum’s Value.”
51 Rick Hummel, “Landrum is Finally Getting His Chance,” The Sporting News, August 13, 1984: 14.
52 Hummel, “Landrum is Finally Getting His Chance.”
53 Stan Isle, “The Durable Dodger,” The Sporting News, September 30, 1985: 11.
54 George Vecsey, “Sports of the Times; Will Vapor Man Strike Again?” New York Times, October 20, 1985: A3.
55 Whicker, “The Cardinals Mr. October.”
56 Dave Nightingale, “Cards and Dodgers Take Turns Playing Giveaway,” The Sporting News, October 21, 1985: 22
57 Vecsey, “Sports of the Times; Will Vapor Man Strike Again?”
58 Paul Attner, “Where Was the Quiz,” The Sporting News, October 28, 1985: 14.
59 Dave Nightingale, “Tudor Turns Off Royals with All the Right Stuff,” The Sporting News, November 4, 1985: 16.
60 Jayson Stark, “Landrum Lands in Spotlight,” Philadelphia Inquirer, October 24, 1985: D10.
61 Rick Hummel, “Nation Learns of Landrum’s Value,” The Sporting News, November 4, 1985: 23.
62 “Cardinals,” The Sporting News, March 16, 1987: 28.
63 Rick Hummel, “Non-Contact Sports Risky For Redbirds,” The Sporting News, April 14, 1986: 14.
64 “Cardinals,” The Sporting News, May 18, 1987: 19
65 “Orioles,” The Sporting News, May 23, 1988: 36.
66 John Rohde, “Tito’s Pursuit Not So Trivial,” https://oklahoman.com/article/2231159/titos-pursuit-not-so-trivial (last accessed November 5, 2020).
67 Landrum’s 1991 Pacific Senior League Baseball Card.
68 Coffey, “Tito Landrum: Postseason Hero To…”
69 Vecsey, “Outfielder, Then College Valedictorian.”
70 Coffey, “Tito Landrum: Postseason Hero To…”
71 Coffey, “Tito Landrum: Postseason Hero To…”
72 Vecsey, “Outfielder, Then College Valedictorian.”