A Gallery of Rogues
Swede Risberg: Fiery shortstop and close friend of Gandil who served as the fix enforcer while hitting an abysmal .080 in the Series; he was the most defiant among the players about his involvement afterward.
Buck Weaver: Popular third baseman and former team captain who denied any involvement in the fix for the rest of his life; while he reportedly never accepted bribe money, other players place him at multiple meetings with gamblers, both before and during the World Series.
Lefty Williams: Emerging pitcher who won 23 games in the regular season but went 0-3 in the World Series; he was the third player (after Cicotte and Jackson) to testify to the grand jury in September 1920.
Arnold Rothstein: Kingpin in New York gambling circles and reputed financier of the World Series fix. In his 1920 grand jury testimony, he strongly denied any involvement and Chicago prosecutors publicly exonerated him. He was later accused by Ban Johnson of arranging theft of the grand jury transcripts.
Abe Attell: Former boxing champion and occasional Rothstein bodyguard; he and David Zelcer were the backers of Bill Burns’s scheme to fix the World Series. Indicted by grand jury, but resisted extradition to Chicago and never stood trial.
Sport Sullivan: Experienced sports fixer from Boston who initially met with Chick Gandil and Eddie Cicotte to discuss their plot two weeks before the 1919 World Series. Indicted by grand jury, but resisted extradition to Chicago and never stood trial.
Nat Evans: Russian-born gambler and Rothstein’s trusted business partner; he used the alias “Rachael Brown” while meeting with White Sox players and other gamblers during the World Series. “Brown” was indicted by the grand jury, but never stood trial. Evans’s name was not connected to the scandal in his lifetime.
David Zelcer: Iowa-based gambler who partnered with Abe Attell, using the alias “Bennett,” to fix the 1919 World Series. He and the four other Midwesterners below were the only gamblers who stood trial for their roles in the Black Sox Scandal. Testified in his own defense and was acquitted by the jury.
Carl Zork: St. Louis gambler and longtime friend of Abe Attell and other sports underworld figures. He helped revive the fix after the White Sox surprisingly won Game Three and raised more money to pay off the players. Indicted by grand jury but acquitted at trial.
Ben Franklin: St. Louis gambler and friend of Carl Zork who asked for and was granted a separate trial from the Black Sox due to a lingering illness. After the jury acquitted the other defendants, charges against Franklin were dropped.
Benjamin and Lou Levi: Iowa-based gambling brothers who were acquaintances of Abe Attell and reportedly won big betting on the Reds in the 1919 World Series. Their charges were dismissed mid-trial for insufficient evidence.
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