Harley "Doc" Parker (LIBRARY OF CONGRESS)

Doc Parker

This article was written by Larry DeFillipo

Harley "Doc" Parker (LIBRARY OF CONGRESS)“Pretty as the first flush of a June morn and as shapely as a peachblow vase filled with violets and many-hued pansies.” That’s how the Chicago Tribune described a tall, blond, and strikingly handsome 21-year-old Harley Parker in his 1893 debut for the Chicago Colts.1 Thirteen years later, when the right arm of the less divinely configured Mordecai “Three Finger” Brown went dead near the end of the season, he found new life from the by-then renowned nerve specialist, “Doc” Parker, M.D., before starting Game One of the 1906 World Series for the Chicago Cubs.

Parker spent parts of four seasons pitching for the National League Colts and Cincinnati Reds, his last two outings five years apart. A star with Chicago’s semipro City League and the 1896 Western League champion Minneapolis Millers, Doc bounced in and out of midwestern minor leagues for a decade. In his prime, he featured a deceptive delivery,2 with curves “violent…as a switchback,”3 and “all kinds of shoots.”4 Parker played for a bevy of amateur, semipro, company and barnstorming teams, even in the years he played professionally.5 In winters, he even played indoor baseball.6

As his playing days diminished, Parker became one of the nation’s foremost specialists in the treatment of baseball-related injuries, developed into a champion billiards player, managed a pennant-winning team, failed nobly as owner of a hollowed-out franchise, umpired in the American League, and competed as an ambidextrous golfer.

Not one to tolerate bad situations, Parker turned down contracts he thought inadequate and walked away from downtrodden teams. Known as Harley through most of his playing career, and Doc later on, he was a prominent and sought-after member of the Chicago baseball, billiards, and medical communities for decades.

Harley Park Parker was born on June 14, 1872 in Theresa, New York.7 He was the second of four children born to farmers Harvey John D. Parker (John D.) and Ellen Sayles.8 By June 1880 the Parkers had pulled up roots and relocated to Byron, Minnesota. Within a few years, the family abandoned farming and moved to Lake, Illinois, a small town in the shadow of Chicago.9 By that time John D. had transformed himself into a physician.10

Harley’s baseball odyssey began as a pitcher for the 1889 Emmetts juniors team. He fanned 22 in a 12-inning game, 18 in a regulation affair, and twirled a one-hitter. 11 He then registered with NL President Nick Young to offer his services for the 1890 season.12 After another year playing juniors, Parker joined the semipro Rivals of the City League. Initially a backup to former major-leaguer Charlie Cady, Parker won seven of the team’s last nine games, including both halves of three doubleheaders.13

The right-hander blossomed with the 1892 Rivals. He crafted a 17-strikeout gem,14 then reeled off five more victories. Parker won the first-half league championship game with a game-ending single, in front of “the largest [audience] ever seen on City League grounds,” according to the Chicago Inter-Ocean.15 After winning his first five starts in the second half, Parker tossed a “scientific game” to win the second-half championship, giving him an 18-5 season record.16

Parker won the Rivals’ season opener during opening week of Chicago’s 1893 Columbian Exposition.17 He then began pitching for other teams on days the Rivals were idle. With Western Electric, he lost to the University of Chicago’s star pitcher/coach, and future football legend, Amos Alonzo Stagg.18 The next day, Parker led the Rivals over Stagg’s nine. Soon Parker toed the rubber for yet another team, the Chicago Athletic Association.19 All his juggling didn’t tarnish his record with the Rivals, which stood at 7-1 after a July 9 victory. Thus, Parker drew the attention of Colts player/manager Cap Anson,

The Colts, 24-35, were in 11th place, three games from the cellar. The NL had replaced the pitcher’s box that season with a pitching rubber several feet further from home plate.20 That change laid the Colts pitching staff low; they carried a 4.81 ERA versus 3.16 the year before.21 Ace Bill Hutchison was no longer dominant, and stalwart Ad Gumbert was no longer available (traded after a contract dispute).22 As a result, Anson tried new pitchers like they were going out of style. He’d sign one to pitch a game or two, then replace him with another.23 Parker became Anson’s latest replacement player.

On July 11, 1893, with the Colts trouncing the Washington Senators, 15-2 at Chicago’s South Side Park, Anson inserted the 6-foot-2 Parker in relief of Willie McGill for the eighth inning. The Senators swiftly knocked the bloom off Anson’s long-stem rose, touched up Parker for four hits and three runs, “ma[king] his eyes hang out till they interfered with base-runners.” 24 He did manage to close out the win with a scoreless ninth (giving fans something to smile about, after the previous day’s fire at the Exposition’s Cold Storage pavilion had taken the lives of 12 brave firemen].25 A week after his cameo, Parker was back with the Rivals. He finished the season 15-4, 26 including a one-hit shutout in front of 4,000 spectators.27 He then followed in his father’s footsteps by entering medical school.28

Parker spent 1894 with the Western League’s Grand Rapids (Michigan) Rippers. The team boasted several former major-leaguers, including Bob Caruthers, George Pinkney, and Billy George – but it was Parker whom NL umpire Charlie Cushman singled out in his review of Western League talent. Cushman declared that Parker “will make a first class ball player and be drawing a big salary when some of the other members of the team are dead.”29

Parker’s first full season as a professional was uneven: 15-18, with a 6.23 ERA, and an unsightly 2.092 WHIP.30 His low point was July 25, when he allowed 39 runs and 38 hits in a loss to the Kansas City Blues. The Detroit Free Press abandoned its usual rundown of how runs were scored, remarking that “a detailed report of the game would fill a book bigger than a summer novel.”31

In April 1895, Harley Parker received his M.D.32 from Chicago’s Hering Medical College,33 then headed back to Grand Rapids. Parker first saw action in an exhibition against the recently formed Page Fence Giants.34 An occasional starter and utility fielder, the left-handed hitting Parker played first base, in the outfield, and behind the plate for a few games.35 Despite a decent 2-2 record, he was released in late May.

One month later, Parker was with the Western Association’s Jacksonville (Illinois) Jacks. He lost more than he won, but Jacks manager (and former Rippers teammate) Caruthers still called him “the greatest ‘coming’ pitcher in the Western Association.”36 In August, with rumors swirling that the team was relocating, Parker left the seventh-place Jacks. Ten days later, Western Association President W.W. Kent announced the team was relocating to Springfield, Illinois, and suspended Parker, fining him $100.37 It made no matter, as Parker had already signed a contract to rejoin the Colts.

The Colts sat in seventh place, 10½ games behind the first place Brooklyn Bridegrooms, when Parker took the mound in his first game back, an 8-6 loss to the Philadelphia Phillies. The Cedar Rapids Gazette snarked that the Phillies “hit [Parker] something like the farm hand hits the pounding machine at the township fair.”38 On September 10, Parker defeated the New York Giants for his first major-league victory, then reeled off three more, his last a 4-0 shutout over St. Louis Browns and their ace, Theodore Breitenstein. Hailed by the Chicago Tribune as the best of Anson’s finds, 39 Parker finished the season 4-2, with a 3.68 ERA and a 140 ERA+, the ERA metrics being the best on the staff.40

Back with the Colts in 1896, Parker was one of five starters employed by Anson to start the season in a rotation led by emerging ace Clark Griffith. He made his first appearance as a last-minute replacement for Griffith on a cold April day in St. Louis. He committed two errors, threw three wild pitches, and lost badly.41 After going 1-6, with 73 runs allowed in 73 innings,42 Parker was dropped from the rotation.43 In the first inning of his first relief outing, he allowed the Washington Senators to double a six-run lead. The next day Parker was sent back to Chicago, while Anson considered his fate.44 Ten days later, he was back in Grand Rapids.

In and out of the Rippers/Yellow Jackets/Gold Bugs rotation,45 Parker was awful. He posted an ugly 1-10 record and was heckled by the press. Yet his ability to play multiple positions kept him on the field, including one game in which he was one of three pitchers playing the outfield. After six weeks, he was sold to Western League’s Minneapolis Millers.

Minneapolis and Doc Parker was a marriage made in heaven. After 1,000 cheering fans greeted the team’s train returning from a road trip, Parker tossed a three-hit shutout against St. Paul,46 Parker won his next six starts, including a 7-1 gem over the Columbus Buckeyes that capped the Millers’ 19-game winning streak.47 After compiling a regular-season record of 10-2, Parker won the clincher in the Millers’ playoff series with Indianapolis for the Western League championship.48

Parker was on the Colts reserved player list for 1897, but his rights were sold to Charles Comiskey’s St. Paul club before the season.49 He demanded half of the $200 he claimed was paid to Chicago for his release, threatening to stay home otherwise. After Comiskey sent him a St. Paul contract fixing his salary at $175/month below what he’d made with Minneapolis, Parker returned it unsigned with a note asking for more. When Comiskey declined, Parker announced his retirement and turned to practicing medicine at his father’s downtown Chicago clinic.50

Kansas City Blues owner Jimmy Manning acquired Parker’s contract from St. Paul, but to no avail. Enamored of the Millers’ returning manager Walt Wilmot, and antipathetic to Blues (and former Grand Rapids) captain Jack Carney, Parker announced he’d play only for Minneapolis.51 After a deal to join the St. Louis Browns fell through,52 Parker played for three different Chicago amateur teams. While pitching for one of them, he no-hit a Black team. the Chicago Unions.53 He then barnstormed with a troupe organized by Jimmy Ryan.54 He later told reporters he averaged $250 a month pitching for various teams that summer, and saw little incentive to do otherwise. “I can make more money pitching two games a week around Chicago than I could by accepting the minor league salary. I think Charles Comiskey is back of all my trouble with the Western League. There are ways for a ball player to earn his living besides selling himself to some magnate’s league.”55

With the Klondike Gold Rush in full swing, Parker was rumored to be headed there in early 1898 to make his fortune practicing medicine.56 Instead, he stayed in Chicago to coach the Northwestern University baseball squad and pitch for two Chicago amateur teams. In August, Manning cried uncle and sold Parker’s contract to Minneapolis. Within the week, he was in a Millers uniform. The 1898 Millers were in last place when Parker stepped on the rubber for his first game back. Trailing the Columbus Buckeyes, 10-7 in the ninth, the Millers rallied for 10 runs, including a Parker double to give him the win.57 Deacon Phillippe, who would reach the majors the next year, earned the save. Parker finished the season 6-4, helping to pull the Millers out of the cellar.58

“Loaned” to Minneapolis the year before, Parker’s rights for the 1899 season remained with Kansas City. After Connie Mack failed to obtain him for his Milwaukee club,59 Manning sold him back to the Millers for $500.60 Parker announced he’d quit the game and devote his attention to building his medical practice. But that wasn’t the only object of his attention. On January 10, 1899, Harley married 19-year-old Irish-born Rose P. McShane.61 Rose delivered their first child, Bernadette Frances Parker, 11 months later.

By April, Parker reconsidered and reported to the Millers. He had an up and down first month that included 19-year-old Roger Bresnahan (in one of his sporadic pitching appearances) blowing a lead in relief after Parker strained his back running out a triple.62 Parker subsequently reeled off six consecutive wins, including two shutouts, then lost seven of his next eight decisions. After surrendering 15 runs in a road loss to Rube Waddell and the Grand Rapid Furniture Makers,63 Parker was out of the rotation. Having pitched just once in 18 days, he left the team and returned home to umpire and pitch for a pair of amateur clubs. 64 Presumably, he also watched his brother Jay Parker’s one and only major-league appearance, on September 27 at Chicago’s West Side Park. 65

Unfazed by the previous season’s ending, the Millers invited Parker back in 1900 to what was now called the American League. Yet again, Parker was masterful early, winning seven of his first eight starts, allowing 23 runs in 73 innings. When the team traveled to Chicago to play the White Stockings in late June, Parker was presented an umbrella and basket of flowers. “In acknowledging the gifts,” the Minneapolis Tribune reported, “‘Doc’ decided on a novel method. He sent the ball over the fence to start with, and followed that up with four clean hits.”66 The only home run Parker ever hit as a professional wasn’t enough, as the Millers were trounced. Parker lost seven of his last eight starts and departed the team two weeks shy of the season’s end, finishing 12-15, despite a WHIP below 1.3. 67

At the dawn of the 20th century, billiards was a popular pastime with many ballplayers, including Parker. He’d begun winning billiards tournaments in 1897, and triumphs over several highly ranked Chicago amateurs in late 1900 had aficionados calling Parker talented enough to win the Western amateur billiards championship. 68

The AL’s 1901 transformation into a major league created opportunities for Parker and many other minor-leaguers. In April, the Boston Americans extended him an offer; which team captain Jimmy Collins denied knowing about and Parker denied wanting.69 In May, the Chicago Inter-Ocean reported that Parker had signed with the Cleveland Blues and was on his way to join them.70 Four days later he’d joined the Western Association’s Louisville Colonels instead, led by none other than Walt Wilmot. After four starts, in which he was 1-2 with 4.5 runs allowed per game, Parker developed a sore arm and was sent home to rest. Four days later, on his 29th birthday, Parker’s arm felt good enough for him to sign a contract with the NL Cincinnati Reds.

In the midst of a toboggan slide,71 the Reds had gone winless in eight straight. After a 25-13 mauling by the New York Giants, Reds manager Bid McPhee had benched occasional starter Barney McFadden and demoted sore-armed Amos Rusie to Muncie of the Indiana State League.72 With lefty Doc Newton, loser of his last three starts, due to face the Brooklyn Superbas on June 21, McPhee elected to go with another Doc, the newly acquired Parker.

Five years removed from his last NL start, Parker took a pounding, losing 21-3. He allowed 21 runs on 26 hits, modern NL and major-league records, respectively, for a nine-inning game. Both still stand as of the 2021 season.73 After Willie Keeler crushed a home run to deep center for his fifth hit in as many at-bats, he “decid[ed] he had done enough execution for the day,” and withdrew. The onslaught reached its zenith in the seventh, when the Superbas plated six runs on six hits.74 Like his 1893 debut, Harley’s major-league return was just a one-night stand; he was released the next day.75 Back in Chicago, he declared “I thought I was still fast enough, but Brooklyn made me look like 30 cents in bad money. I’m a sure-enough ‘has been,’ the worst of the bunch, I guess.”76 Parker never played in another major league game.

After licking his wounds, Parker surfaced with the Eastern League’s Buffalo Pan-Ams (so-called for the Pan-American Exposition held there).77 He was a two-way player; pitching every few days and manning right field in between. Like many pitchers of his age in that era, he was often nursing a sore arm. The Buffalo Courier called him “game” for competing with “his shoulder swollen and his arm black and blue.”78 His numbers on the mound were mediocre (2-6, with 43 runs allowed in 62 innings), though he hit .288.79 Late in the season, Parker went home to tend to his sick mother. The Fall River Globe claimed poor play by the Pan-Ams drove him away.80 As Parker left town, President William McKinley lay slowly dying after being shot on the grounds of the Exposition.81

Parker played only semipro and amateur ball in 1902.82 That year was overshadowed by the suicide of his mother in July. Suspicious that her husband had been seeing other women, she confronted him while he was dining with two young ladies. Distraught, she filed for divorce, then killed herself two weeks later; locking her door, closing the windows, and turning on the gas. The Chicago Inter-Ocean published a lengthy and lurid account of her tragic end.83

In 1903, Parker became player/manager for the pennant-winning Sycamore Sycamores of the new Interstate League. He was the club’s primary pitcher at first, but once Parker moved himself to right field and installed his brother Jay on the mound, the team dominated.84 After a year away from baseball,85 Parker returned in 1905 to again coach Northwestern University’s squad86 and pitch for the semipro Chicago Athletics. He became player/manager for the Rogers Park semipro team in 1907, and appeared in his final Chicago-area game at a 1908 benefit, alongside Cap Anson, Fred Pfeffer, and Herman Long.87

From early in his medical career, Dr. Parker specialized in the treatment of baseball injuries. He nursed Hughie Jennings’ weakened throwing arm, vacuum-cupped “Wild Bill” Donovan’s “salary arm,”88 gave electrical treatment to Superbas pitcher Doc Scanlan,89 and helped resolve both White Sox pitcher Nick Altrock’s swollen hand and Cubs first baseman Frank Chance’s troublesome ankle90 While serving briefly as Cubs team physician, Parker also gave first aid to fans injured after a throng pushed their way into West Side Park in August 1906 to see Cubs ace Mordecai Brown square off against Christy Mathewson in what the Lake County Times called “the greatest fight in the history of the National League.”91

In late September, Brown injured his arm midway through another start against the Giants, and pulled himself out.92 Unable even to hold a ball, Brown told the press that he’d “caught a cold in his arm.”93 The Cubs trainer sent him to Doc, who treated Brown and told him a week of rest followed by light practice would put him in great shape for the World Series against the White Sox.94 Brown recovered, pitched brilliantly in the Series opener, but lost to Altrock, 2-1. In the years that followed, Parker treated many current, future, and former major-leaguers, his reputation growing to rival that of John “Bonesetter” Reese.95 One Dayton Herald writer called Parker’s methods more scientific than those of the largely self-taught Reese.96

Doc expanded beyond his medical practice by opening his own bar and restaurant in 1910.97 He then purchased the Central League’s Grand Rapids franchise in early 1911.98 All 14 players listed on the team’s reserve list, however, were not included in the $10,000 deal. Instead, they were transferred to the South Bend franchise that the Grand Rapids former owner also owned.99 The “new magnate” appointed himself manager, formed a team (with a little help from former patient, Johnny Evers)100 that he dubbed the Sweepers. He declared they’d “be in the first fight in the Central League race.” 101

Needing both financial help and time to focus on managing, Parker sold a half-interest to Grand Rapids attorney Monroe Dunham, who served as financial secretary and business manager. The first few weeks of the seasons went well. His “dark horse”102 team, behind greenhorns Billy Goldrick and Al Wickland, was competitive.103 In addition, the city council authorized the construction of a new ballpark.104

Then everything crumbled. Dunham retired, leaving Parker on his own. 105 Gate receipts didn’t cover expenses and Sweeper players didn’t get paid. Rumors spread that Parker had cleaned out the club’s treasury. Doc said he’d been double-crossed, with debts not disclosed when he bought the club and his club secretary drawing an exorbitant salary.106 Parker resold a half-interest in the club, but it was too little, too late. On June 26, he turned the franchise back to the league.107

Parker quickly moved on. In mid-July 1911, he was hired by Ban Johnson as a temporary AL umpire, to replace veteran Jack Sheridan, who’d gone missing and was presumed “retired.”108 In an August 4 game between the Senators and White Sox at Griffith Stadium, Parker was involved in one of the most bizarre plays in major-league history. With the score tied, 2-2, with two out in the ninth, the Senators’ Germany Schaefer “stole” first base after having swiped second, in a futile effort to engineer a game-ending double steal. With Chicago player/manager Hugh Duffy on the field protesting Schaeffer’s antics, pitcher Doc White called Schaefer’s bluff and threw over to first baseman Shano Collins. Schaefer bolted towards second base and Clyde Milan broke for the plate. Collins wheeled and nailed Milan at home. The Senators objected, claiming the play shouldn’t count because the Sox had 10 men on the field. Home plate umpire Tommy Connolly conferred with first base umpire Parker, and ruled Milan out, pushing the game into extra innings.109

Before leaving town, Parker was served with a warrant, and marched to the office of U.S. Vice President James Sherman. Doc was asked to explain the ruling on the Schaefer play, which vexed Sherman “more than any problem that had come up in the extra session of Congress.”110

On August 19, Parker issued his first and only player ejection, tossing Philadelphia Athletics pitcher and future Hall of Famer Eddie Plank, who’d thrown his glove in disgust after issuing a walk.111 The next day, Parker was let go.112

Parker’s stature within the billiards community grew significantly over time. Crowned Chicago’s top ranked amateur in 1903,113 he defeated national champion Charles F. Conklin in a local tournament, competed at the 1906 national amateur billiards championship, and played in numerous exhibitions, tournaments and pool hall openings across the Midwest.114 In 1906, Sporting Life listed Parker alongside Anson and Wilmot as the three best billiards players “that baseball ever turned out.”115 Doc briefly coached Welker Cochran, helping him become a world champion at both balkline and three-cushion billiards.116 During World War I, Parker, as president of the Illinois association of billiards players, led a fund drive that raised enough money to provide five ambulances to U.S. soldiers fighting in France.117 He also may have influenced the rules of balkline billiards, attributed by some sources as having introduced the Parker’s box.118

In his forties, Parker became an avid golfer. On the links with former Western Association champion Ned Sawyer in 1915, Doc’s drive from the last tee landed in a nearby chicken coop. “I know I was a left field hitter,” said Parker, “but the ball did not know that.”119 He later drew attention as an ambidextrous golfer, playing one-man matches in suburban Chicago.120

Parker suffered turmoil and heartbreak in 1922. In March, his wife Rose sued for divorce, claiming he was a habitual drunkard and that he’d often beaten and kicked her. She reportedly sought custody of their three daughters, Bernadette, Rosemary, and Jane.121 A month later, Rosemary was dead at the age of 19, after which Harley and Rose reconciled.

Their commitment to family renewed, Parker and his wife often visited his brother Jay in Hartford, Michigan over the next decade. After one of those visits in September 1927, Parker brought Jay back to Chicago to watch former heavyweight champion Jack Dempsey work out a week before his rematch with Gene Tunney.122

Dr. Harley Parker died on March 3, 1941, at the age of 68, survived by Rose, Bernadette, and Jane. He was buried at All Saints Catholic Cemetery and Mausoleum in Des Plaines, Illinois.123

Last revised: May 27, 2022 (zp)

Acknowledgments

This biography was reviewed by Bill Lamb and Rory Costello and fact-checked by Terry Bohn.

 

Sources

In addition to the sources cited in the Notes, the author consulted myheritage.com, familysearch.com, Baseball-Reference.com, retrosheet.org, statscrew.com, newspaper archives for the Chicago Inter-Ocean, Chicago Chronicle, and Chicago Tribune, and SABR member Stew Thornley’s website dedicated to the Minneapolis Millers, https://stewthornley.net/millers.html.

 

Notes

1 “Colts Bat Him Gayly,” Chicago Tribune, July 12, 1893: 7.

2 The Wichita (Kansas) Eagle also noted that his motion was so unusual, that it “will incapacitate him in another season. “Found Hutchinson Easy,” Chicago Chronicle, September 7, 1895: 5; “Eagle Baseball Notes,” Wichita Eagle, September 26, 1895: 3; “Lost in Mill City,” St. Paul Globe, September 10, 1896: 5.

3 “Nailed the Jacks: Treated Harley Badly,” Lincoln (Nebraska) Journal Star, June 26, 1895: 5.

4 “With the Amateurs,” Chicago Inter-Ocean, September 20, 1897: 4.

5 Over a 22-year span, Harley played for at least 17 different amateur, semi-pro or company teams and seven minor league franchises, in addition to several barnstorming and single-occasion (benefit, reunion, etc.) teams.

6 Parker played on teams with Chicago area ballplayers, playing in at least one game against “firemen and city employees.” A forerunner of softball, indoor baseball used a softened 17-inch ball, a stick-like bat, and no fielding gloves on courts much smaller than a baseball diamond in order to fit within available facilities. Pitchers were required to deliver the ball with an underhand motion, from as little as 22 feet from home plate. Indoor baseball was decried in 1891 as an unprofessional, inherently dangerous sport for baseball players accustomed to playing the outdoor game on dirt and grass. “Base-Ball War Ended,” Chicago Tribune, January 4, 1891: 15; “Indoor Base Ball,” Sporting Life, December 12, 1896: 5; https://historyofsport.wordpress.com/2020/07/21/indoor-baseball-in-chicago-high-schools-1892-to-1919-essay-by-robert-pruter/, accessed December 19, 2021.

7 Coincidentally, the Parker family entry in the 1875 New York census, was dated on Harley’s third birthday, June 14, 1875. 1875 New York State Census, Population of the Town of Theresa, County of New York, Page 17, Records 677-684; “Parker Not a Spring Chicken,” Kansas City Press, June 4, 1897: 4.

8 Harvey’s antecedents emigrated to Massachusetts Bay Colony from Southampton, England in April 1638, eighteen years after the Mayflower set sail from Southampton to establish the first permanent European settlement in Massachusetts.

9 The Parker family may have made an intermediate move from their farm in Minnesota to the town of Decatur, Illinois. In 1885, the Decatur Morning Review mentioned that “John D. Parker is preparing to move from his farm into his elegant new house purchased from George Longstreet several months ago.” “Maroa,” Decatur Morning Review, October 7, 1885: 4.

10 When John D. earned a medical degree and began practicing medicine is unclear. In the 1880 U.S. census, his occupation was listed as farmer. In 1890 he was included in a list of Chicago physicians and surgeons. http://livinghistoryofillinois.com/pdf_files/1890%20Chicago%20Blue%20Book.pdf, accessed December 13, 2021.

11 Newspaper accounts of Parker’s 18-strikeout game differ on the final score but agree on the number of his strikeouts. “The Amateurs’ Column,” Chicago Inter-Ocean, May 30, 1889: 2; “Close Contests-Anxious for Matches,” Chicago Tribune, June 5, 1889: 6; “Other Sunday Games,” Chicago Tribune, July 22, 1889: 3; “Amateur Gossip,” Chicago Tribune, July 23, 1889: 3; “Outside the Fence,” Chicago Inter-Ocean, August 12, 1889: 2.

12 Parker had responded to a circular distributed by Young as part of a campaign to secure talent in the face of competition from the newly formed Players League. “Hosts of Hungry Colts,” Boston Globe, January 27, 1890: 2; “Want to Play Ball,” Washington Critic, January 27, 1890: 4; “Nick Young’s List,” Pittsburgh Dispatch, January 27, 1890: 6.

13 Each doubleheader followed a reduced innings format. The first game for two of the doubleheaders was five innings in two cases, while another was seven innings long. The last game of one of the doubleheaders was only eight innings. “City League Games,” Chicago Inter-Ocean, October 26, 1891: 6.

14 “City League Games,” Chicago Inter-Ocean, May 9, 1892: 6.

15 “Eleven Innings,” Chicago Inter-Ocean, July 18, 1892: 6.

16 “Rivals Land on Top,” Chicago Inter-Ocean, October 24, 1892: 6.

17 “Rivals, 6; Franklins, 3,” Chicago Inter-Ocean, May 8, 1893: 4.

18 “Stagg’s Men Beat the Electrics,” Chicago Tribune, May 19, 1893: 7.

19 Parker also pitched for the C.A.A in the Western Amateur League championship, losing to a team from Detroit. “Detroit Club Wins,” Chicago Inter-Ocean, May 31, 1893: 11.

20 The NL eliminated the six-foot by eight-foot rectangular pitching box and replaced it with a rubber “pitcher’s plate,” set 60 feet, six inches from the back of home plate.

21 Average ERA for the NL overall jumped from 3.28 to 4.66 in 1893. The Colts team ERA sank to ninth in 1893 after being fifth the year before.

22 Anson was unable to agree to contract terms with Gumbert prior to the season, Ad claiming that he’d been badly treated. On June 27, Anson traded Gumbert to the Pittsburgh Pirates, receiving pitcher Bert Abbey in return. “The Anson-Barnie-Stratton Dispute Yesterday Afternoon,” Chattanooga Times, April 23, 1893: 6.

23 The Colts used 14 starting pitchers in 1893 as compared with six or seven in each of the previous three seasons.

24 “Colts Bat Him Gayly,” above.

25 The Chicago Tribune devoted the entire front page of its July 11 edition to a recounting of the fire that consumed the still-under-construction pavilion. In gruesome detail, the Tribune described how several of the doomed firemen, trapped on the building’s roof and tower platform 70-feet above the roof, jumped one by one to their deaths as 25,000 people watched in horror. “In a Funeral Pyre,” Chicago Tribune, July 11, 1893: 1.

26 Parker’s winning percentage was tops in the City League. “City Baseball League Averages,” Chicago Tribune, December 17, 1893: 7.

27 “Rivals Climb Up,” Chicago Inter-Ocean, September 11, 1893: 4.

28 Harley enrolled in Chicago’s Hering Medical School, one of the first medical schools in the U.S. devoted to the teaching of homeopathic medicine. The semester in which Parker began his medical schooling is conjecture, based on the fact that Parker graduated from Hering in 1895. At the time, there was not a standard length of study in U.S. medical schools, though two-years was the common. Hering Medical College of Chicago, Annual Announcement & Catalog, Chicago, Illinois, 1895-1896, p. 8.

29 “Sporting Matters,” Minneapolis Tribune, June 24, 1894: 18.

30 The Rippers defense provided Parker with little help, gifting opponents more unearned runs in his starts (194) than they earned (193).

31 Several newspapers, both then and in future years, referred to the 39 runs allowed by Parker as being, or possibly being, a Western League or minor league record. “Three Record Breaking Games in One Day,” Detroit Free Press, July 26, 1894: 2.

32 Parker is referred to as an M.D. in multiple newspaper articles, and his gravestone also identifies him with an M.D. credential. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/46840791/harley-park-parker, accessed December 9, 2021.

33 Parker was one of 30 graduates in Hering’s second graduating class. “Hering Medical College Graduates,” Chicago Tribune, April 10, 1895: 8; Charles Edmund Fisher, ed., Medical Century, An International Journal of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery, Volume 4 (Chicago-New York; Medical Century Co, 1896), p. 224; https://chicagology.com/rebuilding/rebuilding006/, accessed December 16, 2021.

34 The Adrian, Michigan-based Giants began operations in 1895, and played their first game just two days before their series with the Gold Bugs began. “Gold Bugs Again Victorious,” Detroit Free Press, April 15, 1895: 2; https://www.baseball-reference.com/bullpen/Page_Fence_Giants, accessed December 17, 2021.

35 “Indianapolis, 21; Grand Rapids, 12,” Kansas City Times, May 13, 1895: 2.

36 “Baseball Notes,” Nebraska State Journal, July 21, 1895: 16.

37 The Buffalo Morning Express reported that Parker had requested his release in July, and that he left the club because his request had been ignored. “Diamond Gossip,” Buffalo Morning Express, August 21, 1895: 10.

38 “Baltimore’s Boom,” Cedar Rapids Gazette, August 31, 1895: 3.

39 “Shuts Out St. Louis,” Chicago Tribune, September 21, 1895: 6.

40 At the plate he was also solid, hitting .318.

41 “Break Into the Game,” Chicago Tribune, April 20, 1896: 8.

42 Parker’s final record, runs allowed, and innings pitched differ here from those shown on Baseball-Reference.com and retrosheet.com, both of which show Parker having a 1-5 record for the Colts in 1896, with a total of 71 runs allowed in 73 innings. The author compiled the statistics listed here from review of each Colts game box score printed in Chicago newspapers. Game box scores are not available on Baseball-Reference or retrosheet.com for the 1896 Colts at the time of this writing, so the author could not identify the source(s) of the discrepancy.

43 Parker also filled in once for an injured Bill Lange in center field, recording a hit, with one putout and no errors. His outfield putout was described by Sporting Life as having taken the crowd by surprise, as he caught it “right where [rookie left fielder Algie] McBride should have taken it,” and that “McBride was nervous and scared to death, and the he asked Parker to please catch anything that came within a mile of him.” “Terry Is,” Sporting Life, May 30, 1896: 8.

44 “Anson Farms Out His Pitchers,” Chicago Tribune, June 15, 1896: 8.

45 Officially the Rippers, the 1896 Grand Rapids club was also referred as the Yellow Jackets, and their previous name, the Gold Bugs, “Saints in Fourth,” St. Paul Globe, July 10, 1896: 5; “The Bugs Are on the Gallop,” Detroit Free Press, August 1, 1896: 6.

46 “Nine Zeros Stand: Harley Parker’s Triumph,” St. Paul Globe, August 15, 1896: 5.

47 The streak was a new Western League record. “Lost in Mill City,” St. Paul Globe, September 10, 1896: 5.

48 Parker earned the win in relief of starter Frank Figgemeier. In a team photograph of the 1896 Minneapolis team, reproduced multiple times over the years in various newspapers and websites, Parker is curiously the only one of 14 uniformed players whose shirt is not emblazoned with the word “Minneapolis.” “Win the Cup, Too,” St. Paul Globe, October 2, 1896: 5; “Western League Champions of 1896,” The Sporting News, November 7, 1896: 3; “Wilmot and Werden Helped Millers Win First Pennant in 1896,” Minneapolis Star Tribune, June 4, 1939: 40; “Minneapolis Millers, 1896,” https://whowerethey.photos/2012/11/05/minneapolis-millers-1896/, accessed January 5, 2022.

49 Comiskey purchased Parker’s contract along with that of outfielder Algie McBride, for $1500. “Food for the Fans,” Cedar Rapids (Iowa) Gazette, February 11, 1897: 3.

50 Dr. John D. Parker maintained offices at 63 and 78 State Street, in a practice he shared with Harley. The Chicago Blue Book of Selected Names of Chicago and Suburban Towns (Chicago: The Chicago Directory Co., 1890), p. 642.

51 Parker’s antipathy for Carney was apparently shared by many former Grand Rapids teammates of theirs. The Detroit Free Press had reported the previous August that “it looks as though every man on the team was playing for his release, and Capt. Carney is said to be the cause of it.” “Base Ball Gossip,” Kansas City Star, July 14, 1897: 3; “The Bugs are Sore on Capt. Carney,” Detroit Free Press, August 4, 1896: 2.

52 Over the course of the summer, the press reported that he’d signed with Kansas City, and that St. Louis Browns owner Von der Ahe had offered Manning a trade for him. Soon after, the Chicago Inter-Ocean reported that Parker’s recently wrenched knee had killed any deal. “Base Ball Gossip,” Kansas City Star, July 14, 1897: 3.

53 Pitching for Auburn Parks, Parker struck out 16 and stroked two hits himself in the no-hitter. The Unions lineup included player/manager Abe Jones and George Hopkins, a pitching phenom in the 1880s. “Both Pitched Well,” Chicago Chronicle, September 13, 1897: 8; Naomi Brack, “The Chicago Unions (1887-1904),” November 24, 2020, https://www.blackpast.org/african-american-history/the-chicago-unions-1887-1904/; Todd Peterson, “May the Best Man Win, Spring 2013 Baseball Research Journal,” SABR, Spring 2013, /journal/article/may-the-best-man-win-the-black-ball-championships-1866-1923/

54 Ryan’s troupe included Danny Friend, Jim Connor and Barry McCormick of the Colts, Fred Clarke and Chick Fraser of the Louisville Colonels, and Harley’s brother Jay. “Strike Among the Barnstormers,” Chicago Tribune, October 9, 1897: 6.

55 “Base Ball Gossip,” Kansas City Star, October 8, 1897: 3; “Diamond Dust,” St. Paul Globe, October 29, 1897: 7.

56 The Klondike Gold Rush, also known as the Yukon Gold Rush, was at its peak in 1897, as over 100,000 people from all walks of life braved the wilds of Alaska and Canada’s Yukon Territory to pan for gold, in hopes of striking it rich. “Baseball Brevities,” Pittsburg Press, January 3, 1898: 5; https://www.history.com/topics/westward-expansion/klondike-gold-rush#section_2, accessed January 6, 2022.

57 “Ten in the Ninth,” Minneapolis Tribune, August 18, 1898: 2.

58 Parker’s record differs here from that shown on Baseball-Reference.com, which shows Parker as 5-4 for the Millers in 1898. The author compiled the statistics listed here from review of each Millers game box score printed in Minneapolis/St. Paul newspapers. Game box scores are not available on Baseball-reference for the 1898 Millers season at the time of this writing, so the author could not identify the source(s) of the discrepancy.

59 “Parker’s Case,” Sporting Life, November 19, 1898: 3.

60 “Parker Goes to Minneapolis,” St. Louis Globe-Democrat, December 14, 1898: 10.

61 “Illinois Marriages, 1815-1935″, database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:V2G6-X6V : 14 February 2020), Rose McShane in entry for Harley Parker, 1899.

62 Bresnahan eventually switched to catching full-time, where he carved out a Hall of Fame career. “Disaster Overtook the Millers at Nicollet Park Yesterday Afternoon,” Minneapolis Star Tribune, May 12, 1899: 3.

63 This was the Furniture Makers first home game after transferring from the Interstate League. They relocated from Columbus, Ohio in a rare swap of franchises between leagues in the middle of a season. “Welcome for Wanderers,” St. Paul Globe, July 21, 1899: 7; “The Nomad of the Interstate League,” https://baseballhistorydaily.com/tag/columbus-senators/, accessed January 18, 2022.

64 The Pittsburgh Commercial Gazette reported that Parker earned $1,000 to $1,800 playing for semiprofessional teams in Chicago each year. During this time, Parker also organized a team of NL and WL players to play the black Columbia Giants in mid-October. “Sporting Notes,” Pittsburgh Commercial Gazette, March 26, 1900: 6; “National and Western League Players Will be Seen on Local Diamonds,” Chicago Tribune, October 15, 1899: 18.

65 “Gray Pitches Both Games,” Pittsburg Press, September 28, 1899: 5.

66 “Sacrifice Hits,” Minneapolis Tribune, July 1, 1900: 31.

67 On September 7, Parker was back home pitching for yet another Chicago amateur team, while the Millers season didn’t end until September 18. “Amateur Baseball,” Chicago Inter-Ocean, September 7, 1900: 8; Stew Thornley, Minneapolis Millers, 1900 game-by-game results, https://stewthornley.net/millers.html, accessed January 16, 2022.

68 “Among the Local Billiardists,” Chicago Tribune, December 23, 1900: 20; “The Possibility of New Champions in the Billiard Field,” Norwich (Kansas) Herald, January 25, 1901: 8; “Wins with a Run of Sixty-Five. Dr. Parker Defeats Kellogg in the A.A.U. Billiard Tournament,” Chicago Tribune, March 30, 1901: 6; The World Almanac and Encyclopedia 1902 (New York: Press Publishing, 1901), p. 262.

69 “Base Ball Notes,” (Washington, DC) Evening Star, April 11, 1901: 9; “Deny Parker Story,” South Bend Tribune, April 16, 1901: 3; “Bunts and Line Drives,” Kansas City Times, April 20, 1901: 7; “Dr. Harley Parker,” Minneapolis Journal, May 13, 1901: 9.

70 “Reitz Out for Good,” Chicago Inter-Ocean, May 17, 1901: 8.

71 “Champions Win by Hard Hitting,” Brooklyn Eagle, June 20, 1901: 13.

72 Rusie, a multiple 30-game winner for the New York Giants in his heyday, never returned to the major leagues.

73 Prior to 1901 (the start of the modern era), the major league record for the most hits (and runs) allowed in a nine-inning game was held by Jack Wadsworth, of the National League’s Louisville Colonels, who surrendered 36 hits to the Philadelphia Phillies on August 17, 1894. Parker’s 26-hit record has been equaled twice. On May 18, 1912, Detroit’s Allan Travers allowed 26 hits to the defending World’s Champion Philadelphia Athletics and on September 11, 1936, Philadelphia A’s pitcher Hod Lisenbee gave up 26 hits to the Chicago White Sox. Charlie White, “One for the Book,” Richmond (Virginia) Times Dispatch, December 24, 1932: 15; Gary Livacari, Bio for Allan Travers, SABR, /bioproj/person/allan-travers/; https://www.statmuse.com/mlb/ask/which-pitcher-allowed-the-most-hits-in-a-game

74 “Locals Slaughtered Reds in Final Contest,” Brooklyn Times, June 22, 1901: 6.

75 When Doc McJames was released by the Superbas three weeks later, the Dayton Herald pointed out that it hadn’t been a good year for “baseball surgeons,” with three of them (Parker, McJames and the Reds’ Newton on July 13) feeling the axe. “Baseball Briefs,” Detroit Free Press, June 25, 1901: 10; “Notes,” Dayton Herald, July 15, 1901: 6.

76 St. Louis Globe-Democrat, June 26, 1901: 11.

77 The team was officially the Bisons during the 1901 season. The Exposition was a World’s Fair recognizing the independence of the Western Hemisphere and the technological achievements of the 19th century. “Brisk Batting Beats the Bisons,” Buffalo Evening News, August 12, 1901: 6; https://nyheritage.org/collections/pan-american-exposition-collection#:~:text=The%20Pan%2DAmerican%20Exposition%20(Pan,advances%20of%20the%2019th%20century., accessed January 25, 2022.

78 “Lost Final Game,” Buffalo Courier, September 4, 1901: 9.

79 Parker’s final record and batting statistics as listed here differ from those shown on Baseball-Reference.com, which shows Parker having a 1-7 record for the Pan-Ams in 1901, with 23 hits in 75 at-bats. The author compiled the statistics listed here from review of each Pan-Am game box score printed in the Buffalo Evening News and Buffalo Courier. Game box scores are not available on Baseball-Reference for the 1901 Pan-Ams at the time of this writing, so the author could not identify the source(s) of the discrepancy.

80 The Buffalo Evening News offered that Parker had “vamoosed,” and “suspected that the gait the Bisons have been traveling was a little too swift for him.” “Sport Boiled Down,” Buffalo Evening News, September 9, 1901: 5; “Baseball Gossip,” Fall River Globe, September 12, 1901: 6.

81 Following unsuccessful surgery to remove a bullet in his abdomen, McKinley was attempting to recover at the home of Exposition President, John G. Milburn. The Buffalo Evening News described in detail how another Parker, James Benjamin “Big Jim” Parker, a 6-foot, 6-inch black waiter, captured McKinley’s assassin, Leon Czolgosz, temporarily saving the President’s life and preventing further bloodshed. “Big Jim Parker Says He Saved the President from Death,” Buffalo Evening News, September 8, 1901: 4.

82 In May, playing for M & D Range, Parker defeated future Hall of Famer Rube Foster and the black Chicago Unions, striking out eight. The game featured Cap Anson umpiring. “M. & D. Range, 11; Unions, 8,” Chicago Tribune, May 12, 1902: 6.

83 “Mrs. Ellen Parker Commits Suicide,” Chicago Inter-Ocean, July 4, 1902: 12.

84 James Langland, Compiler, Final Interstate League standings – The Chicago Daily News Almanac and Year-Book for 1904 (Chicago: Chicago Daily News Co., 1904), 230.

85 During his time away, the Parkers no doubt enjoyed seeing their second child, Rosemary, born in April 1903, grow from an infant into a toddler.

86 The Northwestern Syllabus, Volume XXII (Chicago: Bowman Publishing Co., 1907), 168-170.

87 “Jake Schaefer is Honored with Successful Benefit,” Chicago Tribune, July 15, 1908: 12.

88 “Donovan’s Salary Arm,” Sporting Life, February 26, 1910: 5.

89 After Using Electrical Treatment Scanlon Shuts Out the Cardinals,” Brooklyn Standard Union, May 17, 1906: 8.

90 “Go To Chicago,” Washington Post, February 27, 1910: 49; “Sports of All Sorts,” Washington Evening Star, May 13, 1904: 9; “Lively Day of Practice for the White Sox,” Chicago Inter-Ocean, April 12, 1905: 4; “Rain Keeps Both Ball Clubs Idle,” Chicago Tribune, April 21, 1905: 6.

91 “Battle of Chicago and New York,” (Hammond, Indiana) Lake County Times, August 18, 1906: 1.

92 “Spuds Rub it in on the Giants,” Chicago Tribune, September 25, 1906: 8.

93 Chicago Tribune, September 29, 1906: 8.

94 “Brown in Condition Next Week,” Moline (Illinois) Dispatch, October 4, 1906: 6.

95 David W. Anderson, Bio for Bonesetter Reese, SABR, /bioproj/person/bonesetter-reese/

96 Parker and Reese did occasionally cross paths, as when Parker treated boxer Billy Walters’ balky shoulder before his unsuccessful challenge for the American version of the World Welterweight title, after Reese was unable to help him. “’Bonesetter’ Reese is Not the Only Man that Repairs Ball Players”; “Real Championship Bout,” Fort Wayne News, December 12, 1914: 4; https://www.boxerlist.com/boxer/billy-walters/70547/, accessed December 30, 2021.

97 Parker’s restaurant was known as the Parker Buffet. “Fanatorials,” Zanesville (Ohio) Times Recorder, November 12, 1910: 10; “Parker May Get Stag Franchise,” Fort Wayne (Indiana) Sentinel, December 15, 1910: 8.

98 “Dr. Harley Parker Buys Grand Rapids,” Evansville (Indiana) Press, January 6, 1911: 7.

99 Syndicate ownership had been banned a decade earlier in the National and American leagues but was still legal in some minor leagues in 1911. “Parker May Get Stag Franchise,” above.

100 Catcher Fred Klipp, obtained from the Louisville Colonels, committed to Parker on the recommendation of Cubs infielder Johnny Evers. “I heard Johnny Evers say you’re a grand, good guy to work for, and you can’t shake me,” Parker had treated Evers after the infielder had heard a crack in his arm while making a throw, then reportedly sobbing “today’s my last day in baseball.” After being cupped by Parker, Evers was back at second base three days later. “Harley Parker ‘Is Good’,” Sporting Life, April 1, 1911: 15; “Dr. Parker Serenely Confident,” Sporting Life, May 6, 1911: 19; “’Bonesetter’ Reese is Not the Only Man that Repairs Ball Players,” Dayton Herald, March 1, 1910: 6.

101 “In the Central,” Sporting Life, March 4, 1911: 15; “Sweepers or — Forget the ‘S’,” Evansville (Indiana) Journal, March 6, 1911: 8.

102 “Grand Rapids Line-Up,” Sporting Life, April 8, 1911: 9.

103 The team was 15-17 on May 30, in fifth place. “Baseball Standing and Calendar,” Indianapolis Star, May 24, 1911: 23.

104 “Stags Land Downtown Park,” Indianapolis Star, May 24, 1911: 8.

105 In addition to handling all of the club’s affairs, Parker also pitched for the Sweepers soon after Dunham left. “Dr. Parker Gets in Game,” Indianapolis Star, June 1, 1911: 8.

106 “Parkers Men Are Loyal to Their Chief: Team Stands Up for Dr. Parker,” Fort Wayne Sentinel, June 6, 1911: 8.

107 Soon after Parker gave back the franchise, it was transferred to new ownership in Newark, Ohio. “Newark Maybe,” Logansport Tribune, June 27, 1911: 3.

108 Bob Thayer, “Bob Thayer’s Sporting Gossip,” Washington Times, July 19, 1911: 10.

109 Washington went on to win the game in 11-innings. Joe S. Jackson, “Nationals Twice Defeat the Sox by Single Run Margin Each Time,” Washington Post, August 5, 1911: 8; “Harley Parker,” Baseball History Daily, https://baseballhistorydaily.com/2014/10/20/harley-parker/, accessed December 30, 2021.

110 “Harley Parker Joke Victim,” Bryan (Texas) Eagle, December 19, 1911: 4.

111 Harry Daniel, “Sad Scenes Enacted at Close of Feverish Excitement on South Side, Mack’s Athletes Treating Locals Harshly,” Chicago Inter-Ocean, August 20, 1911: 23.

112 “Dashes in Sports,” South Bend Tribune, August 22, 1911: 8.

113 The Kokomo Tribune called Parker “the best close if not the best all-around balk line simon pure amateur player in Chicago.” “The Clicking Ivories,” Kokomo (Indiana) Tribune, January 23, 1903: 2.

114 “National Amateur Billiard Tourney,” Evening Star (Washington D.C.), February 27, 1906: 9; “Exhibition Billiard Game in Gary Tonight,” Lake County Times, March 24, 1909: 5; “Notes of the Billiardists,” Chicago Tribune, October 22, 1911: 25; “Sportsmen to Meet Tonight,” Chicago Tribune, July 10, 1914: 10; “With the Cue Experts,” Chicago Inter-Ocean, September 11, 1913: 14; “Sportsmen to Meet Tonight,” Chicago Tribune, July 10, 1914: 10.

115 “National League News,” Sporting Life, March 24, 1906: 4.

116 Parker teamed with the youngster, and former foe Conklin, to represent the Windy City in a 1916 inter-city match against a team of Detroit billiardists. “Priming Young Billiardist to Supplant Willie Hoppe,” Washington Post, July 5, 1914: 42; “Billiard News,” San Antonio Light, November 6, 1916: 17; https://www.britannica.com/biography/Welker-Cochran; https://baseballhistorydaily.com/2014/10/20/harley-parker/, accessed December 30, 2021.

117 The fund drive was part of an effort undertaken by billiards associations across the U.S. to raise $300,000 for ambulances. “Billiard Men Put First of $300,000 Ambulance Fund By,” Juneau (Alaska) Empire, November 22, 1917: 6; “Cueists’ Gift: Ambulances on Way to France,” Chicago Tribune, July 28, 1918: 18.

118 A Parker’s box is a marked area on a billiards table, which when invoked, limits the number of points that can be scored before at least one ball must be driven from that area by a shooting player. Doc Parker is identified as originator of the Parker’s box (originally known as an anchor box) in 1921 newspaper articles in the Washington Times and the Harrisburg Evening News. “Both Hoppe and Horeman Will Play Billiards Here,” Washington Times, February 13, 1921: 23; “Horeman’s Big Billiard Feats,” Harrisburg Evening News, April 18, 1921: 13; http://www.billiardsforum.com/billiard-terms-definition/parkers-box, accessed December 30, 2021.

119 “Left Field Hitter, but Golf Pill Fools Him,” Chicago Tribune, May 30, 1915: 22; “Western Department,” American Golfer, June 1915: 168.

120 “One-Man Match Latest Golf Stunt,” Washington (DC) Herald, July 26, 1921: 6.

121 “Former Pitcher is Sued by Wife; Cruelty Charge,” Chicago Tribune, March 5, 1922: 21.

122 A few days after the Parkers’ visit, Dempsey hosted another visitor with connections to major league baseball; Big Tom Murphy, “a classmate of Mr. Nickey Arnstein at Leavenworth,” the just-released gambler who’d fixed the 1919 World Series. “Hartford News, Benton Harbor (Michigan) News Palladium, September 15, 1927: 16; “2 Distinguished Visitors Drop in on Jack Dempsey,” Chicago Tribune, September 20, 1927: 21

123 https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/46840791/harley-park-parker, accessed December 9, 2021.

Full Name

Harley Park Parker

Born

June 14, 1872 at Theresa, NY (USA)

Died

March 3, 1941 at Chicago, IL (USA)

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